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Open AccessArticle

Traceability of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) Honey through Nectar/Honey-Sac/Honey Pathways of the Headspace, Volatiles, and Semi-Volatiles: Chemical Markers

1
Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry & Technology, University of Split, Ruđera Boškovića 35, HR-21000 Split, Croatia
2
Department of Fisheries, Apiculture and Special Zoology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetošimunska 25, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Department of Food Technology, Marko Marulić Polytechnic in Knin, Petra Krešimira IV 30, HR-22300 Knin, Croatia
4
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Cagliari, via Ospedale 72, IT-09124 Cagliari, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21101302
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 23 September 2016 / Accepted: 23 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE), followed by GC-MS/FID, were applied for monitoring the nectar (NE)/honey-sac (HoS)/honey (HO) pathways of the headspace, volatiles, and semi-volatiles. The major NE (4 varieties of Citrus unshiu) headspace compounds were linalool, α-terpineol, 1H-indole, methyl anthranilate, and phenylacetonitrile. Corresponding extracts contained, among others, 1H-indole, methyl anthranilate, 1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one and caffeine. The major HoS headspace compounds were linalool, α-terpineol, 1,8-cineole, 1H-indole, methyl anthranilate, and cis-jasmone. Characteristic compounds from HoS extract were caffeine, 1H-indole, 1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one, methyl anthranilate, and phenylacetonitrile. However, HO headspace composition was significantly different in comparison to NE and HoS with respect to phenylacetaldehyde and linalool derivatives abundance that appeared as the consequence of the hive conditions and the bee enzyme activity. C. unshiu honey traceability is determined by chemical markers: phenylacetaldehyde, phenylacetonitrile, linalool and its derivatives, as well as 1H-indole, 1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one, and caffeine. View Full-Text
Keywords: Citrus unshiu Marc. honey; phenylacetaldehyde; phenylacetonitrile; linalool and its derivatives; 1H-indole; 1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one; caffeine; HS-SPME; USE; GC-MS Citrus unshiu Marc. honey; phenylacetaldehyde; phenylacetonitrile; linalool and its derivatives; 1H-indole; 1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one; caffeine; HS-SPME; USE; GC-MS
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Jerković, I.; Prđun, S.; Marijanović, Z.; Zekić, M.; Bubalo, D.; Svečnjak, L.; Tuberoso, C.I.G. Traceability of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) Honey through Nectar/Honey-Sac/Honey Pathways of the Headspace, Volatiles, and Semi-Volatiles: Chemical Markers. Molecules 2016, 21, 1302.

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