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Molecules 2015, 20(9), 16833-16851;

Isolation and Functional Characterization of a Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Gene (SsPAL1) from Coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd)

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, College of Life Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics and Biotechnology of Guangdong Provincial Higher Education Institutions, Guangzhou 510642, China
Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Floriculture, College of Horticulture and Landscape, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China
Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Rapeseed, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Present address: BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 9 June 2015 / Revised: 20 August 2015 / Accepted: 31 August 2015 / Published: 16 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3779 KB, uploaded 16 September 2015]   |  


Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first enzyme involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway and plays important roles in the secondary metabolisms, development and defense of plants. To study the molecular function of PAL in anthocyanin synthesis of Coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd), a Coleus PAL gene designated as SsPAL1 was cloned and characterized using a degenerate oligonucleotide primer PCR and RACE method. The full-length SsPAL1 was 2450 bp in size and consisted of one intron and two exons encoding a polypeptide of 711 amino acids. The deduced SsPAL1 protein showed high identities and structural similarities with other functional plant PAL proteins. A series of putative cis-acting elements involved in transcriptional regulation, light and stress responsiveness were found in the upstream regulatory sequence of SsPAL1. Transcription pattern analysis indicated that SsPAL1 was constitutively expressed in all tissues examined and was enhanced by light and different abiotic factors. The recombinant SsPAL1 protein exhibited high PAL activity, at optimal conditions of 60 °C and pH 8.2. Although the levels of total PAL activity and total anthocyanin concentration have a similar variation trend in different Coleus cultivars, there was no significant correlation between them (r = 0.7529, p > 0.1), suggesting that PAL was not the rate-limiting enzyme for the downstream anthocyanin biosynthetic branch in Coleus. This study enables us to further understand the role of SsPAL1 in the phenylpropanoid (flavonoids, anthocyanins) biosynthesis in Coleus at the molecular level. View Full-Text
Keywords: phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; anthocyanin; Coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd) phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; anthocyanin; Coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd)

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Zhu, Q.; Xie, X.; Lin, H.; Sui, S.; Shen, R.; Yang, Z.; Lu, K.; Li, M.; Liu, Y.-G. Isolation and Functional Characterization of a Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Gene (SsPAL1) from Coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd). Molecules 2015, 20, 16833-16851.

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