Next Article in Journal
New Fluorescence Probes for Biomolecules
Next Article in Special Issue
Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Possibilities and Challenges for Drug Delivery in Vitro and in Vivo
Previous Article in Journal
Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Licorice Extract and Its Active Compounds, Glycyrrhizic Acid, Liquiritin and Liquiritigenin, in BV2 Cells and Mice Liver
Previous Article in Special Issue
Development of Radiolabeled Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Activatable Cell Penetrating Peptide Imaging Probes
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Molecules 2015, 20(7), 13055-13070;

Cell-Type Specific Penetrating Peptides: Therapeutic Promises and Challenges

Research Instructor, Department of Developmental Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15201, USA
Excela Health Cardiology, Greensburg, PA 15601, USA
Department of Metabolism and Aging, Scripps Florida, Jupiter, FL 33458, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 3 June 2015 / Revised: 19 June 2015 / Accepted: 10 July 2015 / Published: 20 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Penetrating Peptides (CPPs))
Full-Text   |   PDF [722 KB, uploaded 20 July 2015]


Cell penetrating peptides (CPP), also known as protein transduction domains (PTD), are small peptides able to carry peptides, proteins, nucleic acid, and nanoparticles, including viral particles, across the cellular membranes into cells, resulting in internalization of the intact cargo. In general, CPPs can be broadly classified into tissue-specific and non-tissue specific peptides, with the latter further sub-divided into three types: (1) cationic peptides of 6–12 amino acids in length comprised predominantly of arginine, lysine and/or ornithine residues; (2) hydrophobic peptides such as leader sequences of secreted growth factors or cytokines; and (3) amphipathic peptides obtained by linking hydrophobic peptides to nuclear localizing signals. Tissue-specific peptides are usually identified by screening of large peptide phage display libraries. These transduction peptides have the potential for a myriad of diagnostic as well as therapeutic applications, ranging from delivery of fluorescent or radioactive compounds for imaging, to delivery of peptides and proteins of therapeutic potential, and improving uptake of DNA, RNA, siRNA and even viral particles. Here we review the potential applications as well as hurdles to the tremendous potential of these CPPs, in particular the cell-type specific peptides. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell-penetrating peptides; protein transduction domains; phage display; biopanning cell-penetrating peptides; protein transduction domains; phage display; biopanning
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zahid, M.; Robbins, P.D. Cell-Type Specific Penetrating Peptides: Therapeutic Promises and Challenges. Molecules 2015, 20, 13055-13070.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top