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Open AccessArticle

Chemical Characterization of Different Sumac and Pomegranate Extracts Effective against Botrytis cinerea Rots

1
Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l'analisi dell'economia agraria (CRA)-Centro di Ricerca per l'Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee (CRA-ACM), Corso Savoia 190, Acireale (CT) 95024, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Località Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria 89122, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira
Molecules 2015, 20(7), 11941-11958; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200711941
Received: 7 May 2015 / Revised: 18 June 2015 / Accepted: 23 June 2015 / Published: 30 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel and sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) fruit and leaf extracts were chemically characterized and their ability to inhibit table grape (cv. Italia) rots caused by Botrytis cinerea was evaluated on artificially inoculated berries. Different extraction methods were applied and extracts were characterized through Ultra Fast High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Photodiode array detector and Electrospray ionization Mass spectrometer (UPLC-PDA-ESI/MSn) for their phenol and anthocyanin contents. The concentrated pomegranate peel extract (PGE-C) was the richest in phenols (66.97 g gallic acid equivalents/kg) while the concentrated sumac extract from fruits (SUF-C) showed the highest anthocyanin amount (171.96 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/kg). Both phenolic and anthocyanin profile of pomegranate and sumac extracts were quite different: pomegranate extract was rich in cyanidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside and ellagic acid derivatives, while sumac extract was characterized by 7-methyl-cyanidin 3-galactoside and gallic acid derivatives. The concentrated extracts from both pomegranate peel and sumac leaves significantly reduced the development of Botrytis rots. In particular, the extract from pomegranate peel completely inhibited the pathogen at different intervals of time (0, 12, and 24 h) between treatment and pathogen inoculation on fruits maintained at 22–24 °C and high relative humidity (RH). This extract may represent a valuable alternative to control postharvest fungal rots in view of its high efficacy because of the low cost of pomegranate peel, which is a waste product of processing factories. View Full-Text
Keywords: UPLC-PDA-ESI/MSn; Punica granatum; Rhus coriaria; anthocyanins; phenols; tannins UPLC-PDA-ESI/MSn; Punica granatum; Rhus coriaria; anthocyanins; phenols; tannins
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Romeo, F.V.; Ballistreri, G.; Fabroni, S.; Pangallo, S.; Nicosia, M.G.L.D.; Schena, L.; Rapisarda, P. Chemical Characterization of Different Sumac and Pomegranate Extracts Effective against Botrytis cinerea Rots. Molecules 2015, 20, 11941-11958.

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