We recently reported the protective effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) rat model. The current study further investigated the protective effects of the metabolites of CGA and dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA) was selected for further study after screening using the same tMCAo rat model. In the current study, tMCAo rats (2 h of MCAo followed by 22 h of reperfusion) were injected with various doses of DHCA at 0 and 2 h after onset of ischemia. We assessed brain damage, functional deficits, brain edema, and blood-brain barrier damage at 24 h after ischemia. For investigating the mechanism, in vitro
zymography and western blotting analysis were performed to determine the expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9. DHCA (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently reduced brain infarct volume, behavioral deficits, brain water content, and Evans Blue (EB) leakage. DHCA inhibited expression and activation of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Therefore, DHCA might be one of the important metabolites of CGA and of natural products, including coffee, with protective effects on ischemia-induced neuronal damage and brain edema.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited