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Molecules 2015, 20(3), 4410-4429;

Phaleria macrocarpa Boerl. (Thymelaeaceae) Leaves Increase SR-BI Expression and Reduce Cholesterol Levels in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

Institute of Marine Biotechnology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT), Kuala Terengganu 21030, Terengganu, Malaysia
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Bengkulu (UNIB), Bengkulu 38371, Indonesia
School of Applied and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, 3350 Victoria, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 29 October 2014 / Revised: 23 December 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 9 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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In vitro and in vivo studies of the activity of Phaleria macrocarpa Boerl (Thymelaeaceae) leaves against the therapeutic target for hypercholesterolemia were done using the HDL receptor (SR-BI) and hypercholesterolemia-induced Sprague Dawley rats. The in vitro study showed that the active fraction (CF6) obtained from the ethyl acetate extract (EMD) and its component 2',6',4-trihydroxy-4'-methoxybenzophenone increased the SR-BI expression by 95% and 60%, respectively. The in vivo study has proven the effect of EMD at 0.5 g/kgbw dosage in reducing the total cholesterol level by 224.9% and increasing the HDL cholesterol level by 157% compared to the cholesterol group. In the toxicity study, serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) activity were observed to be at normal levels. The liver histology also proved no toxicity and abnormalities in any of the treatment groups, so it can be categorized as non-toxic to the rat liver. The findings taken together show that P. macrocarpa leaves are safe and suitable as an alternative control and prevention treatment for hypercholesterolemia in Sprague Dawley rats. View Full-Text
Keywords: Phaleria macrocarpa Boerl; hypercholesterolemia; HDL; SR-BI Phaleria macrocarpa Boerl; hypercholesterolemia; HDL; SR-BI

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Andriani, Y.; Tengku-Muhammad, T.S.; Mohamad, H.; Saidin, J.; Syamsumir, D.F.; Chew, G.-S.; Abdul Wahid, M.E. Phaleria macrocarpa Boerl. (Thymelaeaceae) Leaves Increase SR-BI Expression and Reduce Cholesterol Levels in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet. Molecules 2015, 20, 4410-4429.

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