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Article

Stability of Anthocyanins from Red Grape Skins under Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cadiz, Puerto Real 11510, Spain
2
Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Tetouan 93000, Morocco
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 21034-21043; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191221034
Received: 1 October 2014 / Revised: 29 November 2014 / Accepted: 9 December 2014 / Published: 15 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins)
The stability of anthocyanins from grape skins after applying different extraction techniques has been determined. The following compounds, previously extracted from real samples, were assessed: delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, malvidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-acetylglucoside, malvidin 3-acetylglucoside, malvidin 3-caffeoylglucoside, petunidin 3-p-coumaroylglucoside and malvidin 3-p-coumaroylglucoside (trans). The techniques used were ultrasound-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction. In ultrasound-assisted extraction, temperatures up to 75 °C can be applied without degradation of the aforementioned compounds. In pressurized liquid extraction the anthocyanins were found to be stable up to 100 °C. The relative stabilities of both the glycosidic and acylated forms were evaluated. Acylated derivatives were more stable than non-acylated forms. The differences between the two groups of compounds became more marked on working at higher temperatures and on using extraction techniques with higher levels of oxygen in the extraction media. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthocyanins; stability; pressurized liquid extraction; ultrasound-assisted extraction; red grape skin anthocyanins; stability; pressurized liquid extraction; ultrasound-assisted extraction; red grape skin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liazid, A.; Barbero, G.F.; Azaroual, L.; Palma, M.; Barroso, C.G. Stability of Anthocyanins from Red Grape Skins under Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions. Molecules 2014, 19, 21034-21043. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191221034

AMA Style

Liazid A, Barbero GF, Azaroual L, Palma M, Barroso CG. Stability of Anthocyanins from Red Grape Skins under Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions. Molecules. 2014; 19(12):21034-21043. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191221034

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liazid, Ali, Gerardo F. Barbero, Latifa Azaroual, Miguel Palma, and Carmelo G. Barroso. 2014. "Stability of Anthocyanins from Red Grape Skins under Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions" Molecules 19, no. 12: 21034-21043. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191221034

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