# Possibility and Time in Quantum Mechanics

^{1}

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Modality in Quantum Mechanics

#### 2.1. The Different Forms of Possibility

_{A}that A possesses and ideal reasoning are sufficient to rule out ¬ p [1]. Objective modality is an ontological category, which refers to how reality may be and, then, is closely related with modality de re: modal concepts apply to ontic items (objects, properties, states of affairs) independently of knowledge and agents, because objective modality is a mode of being of reality in itself. In general, de dicto use of modality is linked with semantic and subjective modality. Nevertheless, it may be the case that the de dicto use of modality expresses de re modality: a proposition p is de dicto possible because the fact semantically referred to by p is objectively-de re possible.

#### 2.2. Actualism Versus Possibilism

_{1}, e

_{2}, …, e

_{n}at times t

_{1}, t

_{2}, …, t

_{n}respectively, concerning this system, if E

_{t}is the state of the system at any time t, there is a functional relation of the form E

_{t}= f(e

_{1}, t

_{1}, e

_{2}, t

_{2}, …, e

_{n}, t

_{n}).” ([17]: 398). However, as the author himself acknowledges, this definition trivializes the notion of determinism, since it is always possible to define a function that “passes” through a finite number of points. To avoid this conclusion, Russell needs to add additional requirements, such as the simplicity of f or the condition that f does not explicitly depend on t.

#### 2.3. Possibility, Probability, and Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

## 3. Two Notions of Time in Quantum Mechanics

#### 3.1. The Obstacle to an Observable Time

#### 3.2. Parameter-Time and Event-Time

- -
- The parameter-time is the time over which the system’s state unitarily evolves. It is represented by the variable t as it appears in the Schrödinger equation.
- -
- The event-time (also called ‘observable’ time by Paul Busch [42]) is the time at which particular events occur. Those events are measurement results or, more generally, any acquisition of a definite value by a certain observable.

## 4. The Link between Possibility and Time

#### 4.1. Possibility and Parameter-Time

#### 4.2. Actuality and Event-Time

## 5. Final Remarks

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

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Lombardi, O.; Fortin, S.; Pasqualini, M.
Possibility and Time in Quantum Mechanics. *Entropy* **2022**, *24*, 249.
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Lombardi O, Fortin S, Pasqualini M.
Possibility and Time in Quantum Mechanics. *Entropy*. 2022; 24(2):249.
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Lombardi, Olimpia, Sebastian Fortin, and Matías Pasqualini.
2022. "Possibility and Time in Quantum Mechanics" *Entropy* 24, no. 2: 249.
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