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Article

Effects of Vaccination Efficacy on Wealth Distribution in Kinetic Epidemic Models

1
Department of Mathematics “F. Casorati”, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
2
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
3
IMATI “E. Magenes”, CNR, 27100 Pavia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ryszard Kutner, H. Eugene Stanley and Christophe Schinckus
Entropy 2022, 24(2), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/e24020216
Received: 7 January 2022 / Revised: 21 January 2022 / Accepted: 25 January 2022 / Published: 29 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Three Risky Decades: A Time for Econophysics?)
The spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the close link between economics and health in the context of emergency management. A widespread vaccination campaign is considered the main tool to contain the economic consequences. This paper will focus, at the level of wealth distribution modeling, on the economic improvements induced by the vaccination campaign in terms of its effectiveness rate. The economic trend during the pandemic is evaluated, resorting to a mathematical model joining a classical compartmental model including vaccinated individuals with a kinetic model of wealth distribution based on binary wealth exchanges. The interplay between wealth exchanges and the progress of the infectious disease is realized by assuming, on the one hand, that individuals in different compartments act differently in the economic process and, on the other hand, that the epidemic affects risk in economic transactions. Using the mathematical tools of kinetic theory, it is possible to identify the equilibrium states of the system and the formation of inequalities due to the pandemic in the wealth distribution of the population. Numerical experiments highlight the importance of the vaccination campaign and its positive effects in reducing economic inequalities in the multi-agent society. View Full-Text
Keywords: wealth distribution; kinetic models; wealth inequalities; compartmental epidemic modelling; vaccination campaign; COVID-19 wealth distribution; kinetic models; wealth inequalities; compartmental epidemic modelling; vaccination campaign; COVID-19
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bernardi, E.; Pareschi, L.; Toscani, G.; Zanella, M. Effects of Vaccination Efficacy on Wealth Distribution in Kinetic Epidemic Models. Entropy 2022, 24, 216. https://doi.org/10.3390/e24020216

AMA Style

Bernardi E, Pareschi L, Toscani G, Zanella M. Effects of Vaccination Efficacy on Wealth Distribution in Kinetic Epidemic Models. Entropy. 2022; 24(2):216. https://doi.org/10.3390/e24020216

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bernardi, Emanuele, Lorenzo Pareschi, Giuseppe Toscani, and Mattia Zanella. 2022. "Effects of Vaccination Efficacy on Wealth Distribution in Kinetic Epidemic Models" Entropy 24, no. 2: 216. https://doi.org/10.3390/e24020216

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