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Review

Deep Learning Methods for Heart Sounds Classification: A Systematic Review

1
Medical School, Nantong University, Nantong 226001, China
2
School of Information Science and Technology, Nantong University, Nantong 226019, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nadia Mammone, Juan Pablo Amezquita-Sanchez and Yiwen Wang
Entropy 2021, 23(6), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/e23060667
Received: 15 April 2021 / Revised: 11 May 2021 / Accepted: 14 May 2021 / Published: 26 May 2021
The automated classification of heart sounds plays a significant role in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). With the recent introduction of medical big data and artificial intelligence technology, there has been an increased focus on the development of deep learning approaches for heart sound classification. However, despite significant achievements in this field, there are still limitations due to insufficient data, inefficient training, and the unavailability of effective models. With the aim of improving the accuracy of heart sounds classification, an in-depth systematic review and an analysis of existing deep learning methods were performed in the present study, with an emphasis on the convolutional neural network (CNN) and recurrent neural network (RNN) methods developed over the last five years. This paper also discusses the challenges and expected future trends in the application of deep learning to heart sounds classification with the objective of providing an essential reference for further study. View Full-Text
Keywords: CVDs; CNN; deep learning; heart sounds classification; RNN CVDs; CNN; deep learning; heart sounds classification; RNN
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, W.; Sun, Q.; Chen, X.; Xie, G.; Wu, H.; Xu, C. Deep Learning Methods for Heart Sounds Classification: A Systematic Review. Entropy 2021, 23, 667. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23060667

AMA Style

Chen W, Sun Q, Chen X, Xie G, Wu H, Xu C. Deep Learning Methods for Heart Sounds Classification: A Systematic Review. Entropy. 2021; 23(6):667. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23060667

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Wei, Qiang Sun, Xiaomin Chen, Gangcai Xie, Huiqun Wu, and Chen Xu. 2021. "Deep Learning Methods for Heart Sounds Classification: A Systematic Review" Entropy 23, no. 6: 667. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23060667

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