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Article

Multifractal Characteristics of Geomagnetic Field Fluctuations for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at Swarm Altitude

1
Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Ñuñoa, Santiago 8370415, Chile
2
Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología (CEDENNA), Avenida Libertador Bernardo O’Higgins No. 3363, Estación Central, Santiago 8370415, Chile
3
Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Avenida Libertador Bernardo O’Higgins No. 3363, Estación Central, Santiago 8370415, Chile
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giuseppe Consolini, Tommaso Alberti and Paola De Michelis
Entropy 2021, 23(5), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/e23050558
Received: 2 March 2021 / Revised: 22 April 2021 / Accepted: 26 April 2021 / Published: 30 April 2021
This paper explores the spatial variations of the statistical scaling features of low to high latitude geomagnetic field fluctuations at Swarm altitude. The data for this study comes from the vector field magnetometer onboard Swarm A satellite, measured at low resolution (1 Hz) for one year (from 9 March 2016, to 9 March 2017). We estimated the structure-function scaling exponents using the p-leaders discrete wavelet multifractal technique, from which we obtained the singularity spectrum related to the magnetic fluctuations in the North-East-Center (NEC) coordinate system. From this estimation, we retain just the maximal fractal subset, associated with the Hurst exponent H. Here we present thresholding for two levels of the Auroral Electrojet index and almost the whole northern and southern hemispheres, the Hurst exponent, the structure-function scaling exponent of order 2, and the multifractal p-exponent width for the geomagnetic fluctuations. The latter quantifies the relevance of the multifractal property. Sometimes, we found negative values of H, suggesting a behavior similar to wave breaking or shocklet-like propagating front. Furthermore, we found some asymmetries in the magnetic field turbulence between the northern and southern hemispheres. These estimations suggest that different turbulent regimes of the geomagnetic field fluctuations exist along the Swarm path. View Full-Text
Keywords: multifractal; magnetosphere; auroral electrojet index multifractal; magnetosphere; auroral electrojet index
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MDPI and ACS Style

Toledo, B.; Medina, P.; Blunier, S.; Rogan, J.; Stepanova, M.; Valdivia, J.A. Multifractal Characteristics of Geomagnetic Field Fluctuations for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at Swarm Altitude. Entropy 2021, 23, 558. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23050558

AMA Style

Toledo B, Medina P, Blunier S, Rogan J, Stepanova M, Valdivia JA. Multifractal Characteristics of Geomagnetic Field Fluctuations for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at Swarm Altitude. Entropy. 2021; 23(5):558. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23050558

Chicago/Turabian Style

Toledo, Benjamín, Pablo Medina, Sylvain Blunier, José Rogan, Marina Stepanova, and Juan A. Valdivia 2021. "Multifractal Characteristics of Geomagnetic Field Fluctuations for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres at Swarm Altitude" Entropy 23, no. 5: 558. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23050558

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