We address security and privacy problems for digital devices and biometrics from an information-theoretic optimality perspective to conduct authentication, message encryption/decryption, identification or secure and private computations by using a secret key. A physical unclonable function (PUF) provides local security to digital devices and this review gives the most relevant summary for information theorists, coding theorists, and signal processing community members who are interested in optimal PUF constructions. Low-complexity signal processing methods are applied to simplify information-theoretic analyses. The best trade-offs between the privacy-leakage, secret-key, and storage rates are discussed. Proposed optimal constructions that jointly design the vector quantizer and error-correction code parameters are listed. These constructions include modern and algebraic codes such as polar codes and convolutional codes, both of which can achieve small block-error probabilities at short block lengths, corresponding to a small number of PUF circuits. Open problems in the PUF literature from signal processing, information theory, coding theory, and hardware complexity perspectives and their combinations are listed to stimulate further advancements in the research on local privacy and security.
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