#### 2.2. Information

Before elucidating the SSH, some pre-discussion about information, i.e., symbolism, is called for. The Copenhagen-like interpretations divide things into two ontological categories—unreal information and real physical “stuff”—which is an epistemological view. For example, the probability distribution of the wavefunction is considered unreal because it is merely information, while a measurement updates the wavefunction to a state more closely resembling the post-measurement physical reality and also actualizes some physical reality into existence—that part correlated to an observation. In other words, it defines realism as physical stuff and something unreal as information or abstractness. However, another popular view, digital physics, is that all of reality is made of information or abstractness, which Wheeler described as “it from bit”. Since reality is real, they say information is real. Materialism is monism. Copenhagen is, in some sense, dualist because, unlike materialism, it places abstract information at a fundamental status in the form of the wavefunction, and thus it has the dualism of information and physical stuff playing two juxtaposed fundamental roles.

The SSH is monistic in that it views reality as information defined as thought. If the SSH were to suppose reality uses a wavefunction, it would say that both it and physicality are made of the same stuff—thought. It relies on the PEL, which posits that there are two fundamental forms of thought or symbolic information:

Self-referential symbolism that is part of a mathematical spacetime and particle code based on the thought of number and geometric symbols or pixels of spacetime information (the case of $X=X$)

Non-self-referential symbolism ($X=\mathit{anything}\text{}\mathit{other}\text{}\mathit{than}\text{}X$, such as the thought of humor, love or a decision of purpose to observe/measure a physical system)

Unlike the Copenhagen interpretation and other ontologies assuming physical stuff to be the opposite of information or thought, the code theoretic ontology of the SSH traffics only in information or thought. Ontology is the study of what is real and what is not, so it is binary. The binary ontology of the materialism-based Copenhagen view is to say that information is unreal and physicality is real. We invert part of this. We set up our binary ontological system to be (See also [

67]):

The unreal potential information as thought that could exist.

The information actualized by thought (by observers including the panconsciousness substrate) selected from the possibility space of nonexistent potential information.

For example, imagine thinking a thought that is so strange and complex you can assure yourself no thinker in the universe previously thought it. Before you thought of it, it was not actualized information. However, it was information that could have existed if you thought of it earlier. Accordingly, we have potential self-referential information that could exist if thought of. Furthermore, we have physical states that could exist as physical thought made of self-referential symbolism along with states that have been thought of by the universe through our observations and so do exist because thought of. We also have thoughts as a form of information that can influence measurements (e.g., decisions to measure) and, in so doing, influence the physical information via wavefunction collapse or something akin to it.

As discussed in [

15,

27] and following our definitions, symbols are objects of thought that represent themselves or something else. As mentioned, any symbol use fits into one of these two categories:

$X=X$ and

$X=\mathit{anything}\text{}\mathit{other}\text{}\mathit{than}\text{}X$. The

$X=X$ category is that of self-referential symbolism. This symbolic meaning is special because it possesses non-arbitrary or non-subjective truth. For example, via mathematical first principles, the numerical properties of a triangle, such as its area, may be deduced non-subjectively from the symbol itself. One may use an equilateral triangle to represent the meaning of itself—an equilateral triangle. In this case, the meaning of the symbol is not subjective. Alternatively, subjective meaning can be chosen for the triangle, such as the notion of change symbolized in physics by the triangular delta symbol. Quasicrystals can be created by projectively transforming self-referential symbols called Lie algebraic root lattices. Some of these lattices encode gauge symmetry physics via their associated Lie algebras. Our program of code theoretic based physics, derived from quasicrystalline root lattice transformations, is the

$X=X$ case, i.e., self-referential symbolism. Unlike lattices or crystals, quasicrystals are self-referential symbolic codes, where their syntax rules are non-invented, i.e., are implied by mathematical first principles.

Languages, i.e., codes, are systems that have an irreducible class of symbol types called “letters” and syntactical rules. Users can steer the syntax degrees of freedom in choices of how to order of the symbols to create semantic form, i.e., meaning, that can exist in nested hierarchies of emergent symbolic meaning, including spatiotemporal or geometric meaning. Letters can be combined to form the emergent meaning of “words”. Words can be combined to form the meaning of “sentences” and so on. One can recognize this as synergistic meaning, where the emergent meaning is greater than the sum of the irreducible symbols or letters and where no additional base symbols are needed for the extra synergistic meaning—only the strategic ordering of the symbols.

Our approach is to build a physical ontology based on a finite set of self-referential geometric symbols that map to formal algebras. We call this level of thought or information

i, where the lower case represents the idea that it is base or letter-level information. Because it is a discrete spacetime code, our pixels of self-referential symbolism are shapes such as quasicrystalline prototiles or, alternatively, entire quasicrystal

inflation [

63,

68] states. These geometric objects map to various isomorphisms and bijections in the form of mathematics that are not geometric. For a finite quasicrystal possibility space, there is a finite set of N different inflations that can be performed. This results in a superset of

$N!$ possible ordered sets or dynamic patterns that can be generated from N. Quasicrystals are proper codes, which require freewill choices of syntactical degrees of freedom or code action to form meaningful expressions. Codes or languages do not organize themselves. They require action—the decision of a syntactical chooser—for the addition of each new symbol in a sequence. This is in contrast to crystals, which are not codes and where the positioning of one tile determines all others. With quasicrystals, “fundamental” particles may emerge as phason quasiparticles that can be created as ordered sets of inflations, wherein the order may be chosen by the panconsciousness as it gets “instructions” from its sub-part consciousnesses, e.g., humans, called observations/measurements.

How would such “instructions” from a human observer to the panconsciousness syntactical chooser occur? Clearly, we are suggesting mathematical actions that the panconsciousness operates that relate to the Planck scale, but humans are at the meter scale. We are not sure of the mechanism. On the one hand, we may presume that since the panconsciousness is a great mind and we are subminds of it, it knows our thoughts of observation as its own sub-thoughts. This should be true. However, perhaps it is also true that there is a deep mathematical connection between the panconsciousness substrate and our

$EC$ thoughts to measure and think other things. After all, our thoughts emerge from Planck scale

$EP$ information and up through higher-order spatiotemporal

$EP$ physical symbolism, such as DNA and biological structure in a fully connected continuum. Penrose theorizes that there is an ideal Platonic substrate at the Planck quantum gravity scale that interacts through structures in our body called microtubules. He believes that there is a panconsciousness at the Planck scale that interacts with us through these structures in our body near the angstrom scale, according to he and Hammeroff’s

orchestrated objective reduction (Orch-OR) theory [

55]. This is related to our quantum gravity program because of two similarities. The first is that our quasicrystalline mathematical substrate is built of 3D tiles based on the five Platonic solids, which we derive via rigorous means from the transformation of certain Lie algebraic root lattices. These structures include Fibonacci sequence numbers and various rational and irrational numbers useful for gauge symmetry physics. Accordingly, our mathematical formalism is built upon an ideal Platonic substrate. The second similarity is that microtubule structures encode Fibonacci numbers and are better described technically as quasicrystalline, not crystalline atomic motifs. Quasicrystalline mathematics, materials quasicrystal science, and the very term quasicrystal are arcane with fewer than 100 physicists and mathematicians funded to work full time in these areas. Microtubules behave as a binary code as implied by sequences of coherent patterns of charge sign value changes to their dimer substructures.

Paola Zizzi extended the Orch-OR framework into cosmology, using a quantum computational paradigm, showing how the universe became conscious at the end of the inflationary period [

69]. Her view is different from ours in terms of how we use evolutionary biology, where we see evidence that consciousness has emerged in at least humans. We take this forward and assume that, just as simple lifeforms, as cells, self-organize collectively to exhibit emergent human consciousness, lifeforms such as humans can self-organize to exhibit collective emergent super-consciousness that is far greater than the sum of the parts. One can think of a human mind–body system as a percentage of spacetime and energy in the universe that self-organized to exhibit emergent consciousness. In principle, all spacetime and energy in the universe can self-organize to form an uber emergent consciousness. Accordingly, it seems that our process of explanation through evolutionary hierarchical processes may be able to converge mathematically with aspects of Penrose and Zizzi’s views insofar as all of spacetime becoming a quantum net capable of thought. As opposed to our view, where, from our vantage point, panconsciousness emerges forward of us in the hierarchy we call “time”, Zizzi’s view is related to a universal consciousness emergence event in our “past” at the end of the inflationary period driven by “dark energy”.

We believe that, until a predictive quantum gravity theory is discovered, it is premature to speculate on the nature of dark energy and matter. What we appreciate about Zizzi’s idea is that reality itself can be a quantum net capable of quantum computation. In general, neither Penrose and Hammeroff nor Zizzi focus on topological quantum computation but instead on standard quantum computation. At low temperature, atomic quasicrystals are topological phases of matter. Mathematically, our Planck scale based quantum gravity program is based on topological quantum computing. Criticisms by Tegmark and others about Penrose’s Orch-OR mathematics are often centered on the contention that microtubules in the human body cannot quantum compute to describe consciousness because the body is not at a low enough temperature. The high temperature leads, in these objections, to decoherence times that are too short for the Orch-OR model to make sense. Penrose and Hameroff have certain arguments to rebut this. However, one way to resolve it is to switch from the notion of quantum computing to topological quantum computing, which allows local thermally induced decoherence events without the destruction of the global quantum superposition state—the global qubit.

With respect to the collection of all ordered sets within the superset $N!$ mentioned above, it is a statistical possibility space with probabilities governed by an energetic scheme we use based on a least computation principle built into the PEL. As mentioned, our interpretation of QM is general and can be applied to other spacetime codes or code theoretic quantum gravity models. However, we use this quasicrystalline interpretation of reality as an illustrative example of the PEL, since our interpretation of QM is related to a class of quantum gravity models and axioms such as ours.

Computer simulations endowed with a random number generator to represent the non-determined choices to measure can implement a form of a game of life. A random number generator may select actions from a deterministic unitary evolution that weighs the selection probabilities of different orderings, i.e., phason quasiparticle random walks, via their computational economy for expressing paths of extremal action. The fundamental particles, as patterns emerging from self-referential geometric symbols, such as 3-simplices, are themselves emergent self-referential spatiotemporal symbols built of simpler symbols that reduce to on/off states of 0-simplices (points) in the possibility pointset that we build our graph actions on. This discrete point set and the internal structure of the quasiparticles are made of such geometric self-referential symbolism, which encode both fundamental and emergent numerical values. Similarly, higher-order emergent spatiotemporal patterns emerging from these, such as “atoms” and “molecules”, are also self-referential symbols or what we call emergent physical symbols, but where our physicalism is information/thought-theoretic. Because the possibility space is discrete, the degrees of freedom are finite, i.e., the random walks such quasiparticles can take are of a finite quantity of possibilities. These emergent strata of higher-order physical symbolism above the level of i are ranked in terms of compound complexity.

Tononi et al. have a similar idea for a ranked complexity measure, where, at some critical magnitude, the complexity can be defined as consciousness or thinking. His approach is called

integrated information theory (IIT) [

70,

71,

72]. IIT posits that many physical systems intrinsically possess consciousness, which, in this context, is defined as a measure of a subsystem’s ability to affect the rest of the system, i.e., causal reality [

72]. His notion of consciousness and freewill is comparable to ours in the sense that a highly conscious entity would be able to make more freewill choices, which increases its ability to influence the syntactical degrees of freedom in the code. In this sense, the emergent consciousness of the universe—the simulation substrate—would be the most conscious entity. However, subsystems of this conscious mind may emerge within the self-simulation and possess consciousness once such subsystems become complex enough to create meaning, i.e., observe or think. Such perceived meaning of a subsystem is also a perceived meaning of the panconscious substrate and so is a form of distributed workload of choice actions to think, i.e., generate meaning/information. This connectivity of our consciousness to the substrate instructs the panconsciousness to make fine grained mathematical code choices that comport with our more coarse-grained thoughts called observations. In other words, there are a large number of different choices of mathematical action at the quantum gravity level that the panconsciousness can choose from in order to map to a given approximate experience of an observation that a human or other thinking entity does, thus we provide: (1) the instructions for when the panconsciousness does a mathematical choice/thought/action; and (2) a coarse-grained constraint on what those choices can be in order to equate with the meaning we thought of in the form of the observation itself.

Our approach is different from IIT insofar as using language theory, where we see a nested hierarchy of code-theoretic information referred to as $E{P}_{1}$, $E{P}_{2}$, $E{P}_{3}$, ⋯, $E{P}_{N}$, with $EP$ standing for emergent physical information. Since $EP$ or physical information is geometric and numeric, and therefore non-subjective, all forms of higher-order $EP$ are emerging from base-level self-referential symbols. However, not all self-referential symbols need to be EP, since we can think in our minds of $EP$ objects such as triangles without it existing as physical information. The different levels represent different strata of complexity emerging from simpler strata in the same sense that a molecule is emerging from atoms, which are emerging from fundamental particles, which may be emerging from self-referential geometric symbolic Planck units of spacetime information/thought. To account for all information, we must sum the total amount of i, which, in our case, is the quantity of on/off state selections in the quasicrystal inflation possibility point space, with the sum of total information in the emergent hierarchy of $E{P}_{N}$. Physicists are generally trained to think only in terms of base or $E{P}_{1}$ information, such as spin states. Accordingly, an analogy would be helpful to emphasize the informational power of higher-order or emergent information.

Consider a book with

N letters and randomize them. If we have a value of 1 unit for the meaning or information of each letter, the magnitude of

$i=N$ units. We notate the total information of the system as

I. In this case of random ordering of

i, we have that

$i=I$. However, if we allow the letters to be organized into words, we have more information than

N. It is not easy to agree on the magnitudes of the emergent information. However, at the same time, it cannot be ignored because the emergent information in a complex physical system is statistically causal on all parts of the system in a force-like manner, as with the notion of

entropic force [

73] or Tononi’s notion of complex system information influencing the behavior of the system. For example, we may randomize the letters in a string of DNA code, which leaves only the information of the sum of the molecular letters. However, if we allow them to be ordered in a meaningful way, they encode a protein folding algorithm, which is an immense statistically causal package of information influencing lower entropy systems that surround it that must be credited with some unknown value of causal information that is over and above the sum of the letters. Accordingly, we have

In this notation, $E{P}_{j+1}$ denotes the additional emergent information in relation to the synergistic meaning created from combining multiple elements of $E{P}_{j}$.

At some point in the nested

$EP$ hierarchy of this emergent physical information, something enigmatic occurs that may be related to something very similar to the Orch-OR model. Consciousness emerges from the regime of

$EP$ to form a new system of information that is itself unbounded in possibilities over a finite set of

$EP$ based

i. Let us call this regime

$EC$ for

emergent consciousness-based information, i.e., non-self-referential thought. As mentioned, all non-self-referential symbols are forms of EC, but

$EC$ may also include non-physical self-referential symbols, such as the thought of a square. We propose that

$EC$ also exists in a nested stratification of

$E{C}_{1},E{C}_{2},E{C}_{3},\cdots ,E{C}_{M}$, each built upon previous strata in the hierarchical stack. This regime is capable of generating additional information over and above the emergent physical

$EP$ information. We argue that the potential of its possibilities is infinite, as it is the universe of all things which can be thought of. Since all forms of emergent information must fit in one of these meta-categories,

$EP$ or

$EC$, we have that

for the total system information

I. Again, the

$EP$ physical information is self-referential geometric and numerical symbolism, such as spacetime quanta with quasiparticle patterns representing fundamental particles with their quantum numbers, spacetime quanta geometric numerical values, and the statistical numerical values relating to the economy rule of the PEL.

To appreciate the scientific importance of the

$EC$ enigma, we reference some unresolved problems and some experiments. First, there is no consensus on the definition of “consciousness”. Thus, herein, we mean the definition we provided in the definitions section, which reduces down to thought or meaning. One might think issues of consciousness are solely the purview of psychologists and philosophers, as opposed to physicists. A second problem is the measurement problem, which relates to the difficulty of reconciling the completeness of the wavefunction, linear evolution, and the Born rule with respect to measurements. If consciousness relates to measurement, then consciousness is relevant for quantum mechanics. The third problem is the question of how consciousness emerges from things that are not conscious. This is called the

hard problem of consciousness [

74,

75]. The SSH starts with the notion that consciousness is fundamental and self-emerges as a strange loop in a cosmological holism ontology that requires abandoning the idea that time is fundamental or even real.

The SSH is novel in how we use the $EP$ information of numerical and geometric mathematical thought to create high-order compound $EP$ physical thought that evolves to $EC$ thought eventually capable of self-actualizing itself in one grand thought that is itself the strange loop $i\to EP\to EC\to i\to EP\to EC\to \cdots $, where i, $EP$, and $EC$ are part of the overall self-simulation thought. However, unlike other attempts to resolve the last two problems above by saying panconsciousness is the ground of reality without explaining how it emerges or why consciousness would influence physical things, such as collapsing wavefunctions, our approach goes further by providing an origin explanation for panconsciousness that, similar to humans, can think in both the $EP$ and $EC$ regimes.

The empirical evidence is that physical systems change when conscious minds choose to observe them. This is reminiscent of how a video game player with a VR headset has a relationship with the code processing computer, where she instructs the CPU and GPU to compute and render simulation landscapes according to what she observes. For the most part, it is the physical evidence for and the inexplicability of observers changing physical reality which leads to all of the interpretations of QM, such as the Copenhagen version. These interpretations, whether they call it “observer” or “consciousness”, often place measurement in the role of collapsing wavefunctions (or decoherence), as evidenced, for example, by the change to the interference pattern in a double slit experiment. Simply having knowledge of which slit a photon goes through dramatically changes the physical system.

At early stages of 20th century physics, there was more debate about whether it was the conscious knowledge of the observer or some physical interaction within the experimental apparatus, such as in the detector, that caused the physical changes in the interference pattern. However, as experimental physics and discussion advanced, it became more widely agreed that it is consciousness, i.e., knowledge or thought about the measurement that generates the physical change and not a physical interaction between an artificial or biological detector and system being observed. Our model implies that, if a consciousness were to somehow be able to have awareness of a physical system without using ordinary means, such as photons or sound, that it would collapse wavefunctions without need of any form of physical detector. Radin et al. reported evidence of this, showing a 4.4 sigma deviation above the null effect [

76,

77,

78]. Tremblay independently analyzed the results to confirm the statistical significance but also identified lesser magnitude statistical anomalies in the control data [

79]. The implication of our model would caution that even the control data might be contaminated by EC-thought based human influence. This is because the entire experiment should be permeated by opinions and thought about the meaning of the endeavor, even the control aspect but with a less focused or less potent degree of statistical modulation from the baseline statistics of QM.

Semantic confusion can enter these discussions. For example, we used certain words above emphasizing the term “consciousness”. Other authors use terms such as “measure” and “observe”. However, these terms are inextricably linked with words such as “awareness”, “knowledge”, “consciousness”, and “thought”. For some Copenhagen-like interpretations of quantum mechanics, at some point of demarcation in a self-organizing system, such as a human, consciousness emerges, which is capable of collapsing the quantum wavefunction and changing physical systems via awareness or knowledge from and about observations [

53,

80]. This seemingly mystical phase transition is often referred to as the

Heisenberg cut. For us, the thinking needs to be able to create

$EC$ information, which requires an emergent mind capable of abstraction. We believe the most sophisticated and plausible mechanism to date for the Heisenberg cut is the Penrose and Hameroff view.

In conclusion of this section, the hierarchical stratification of our $EP$ and $EC$ information does not allow for a limit on the magnitude of total I that a system can have because the $EC$ information possibility space is unbounded. The SSH resolves the measurement problem by showing that codes use choosers of syntactical freedom. Choices themselves are thoughts, thus there are choices being made by emergent entities, such as humans, that generate $EP$ and $EC$. Stephen Hawking asked: “What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe?” The SSH posits that it is observers that animate the syntax expressions of the code, which then map to the statistical equations of a post-quantum mechanical quantum gravity formalism that includes a set of gauge symmetry equations. In this sense, the foundational thought is the observation choice thought/action, which maps to mathematical choices corresponding to quantum gravity code syntax choices, that is the irreducible building-block thoughtform of the universe. When such choices are made to observe and think about physical systems, this generated thought informs the panconsciousness of the meaning created by observation, which defines the degrees of freedom for mathematical choices it can make at the spacetime code level.

The SSH resolves the hard problem more weakly than the Orch-OR model by recognizing that consciousness, i.e., information or thought, is the only thing that exists but without disagreeing with the basic premise of Orch-OR. However, it does this in a very different manner than typical idealist panconsciousness approaches, which say “Consciousness just is”. The SSH offers an explanation for how consciousness comes to exist via self-emergence through the logical strange loop of the $i\to EP\to EC\to i\to EP\to EC\to \cdots $ simulation, where we do not need to say that consciousness “just is”. There is an origin story. The panconsciousness requires the thought of physical mathematical symbolism to self-emerge from. This is because only through simple-to-complex information or language theoretic structure can the free bonus information or synergy of emergent information exist, where the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. In the universe of all thoughts, mathematical information may be the simplest of all. For example, an object is a thought, and the simplest object is either the empty set or dimensionless point, depending upon how one argues it. Thus, the grand self-simulation thought is a nested hierarchy of thoughts, mostly of the synergistic emergent form, starting with the dimensionless point, in a state of on, off, or undecided, and ending with the thought of the entire self-simulation thought, which is equal to the panconsciousness substrate itself.

#### 2.3. Nonlocality of the Self-Simulation

At its deepest level, we interpret the measurement problem as being related to questions of how consciousness can perform measurements. It should be noted that decoherence is not the same as wavefunction collapse. Quantum systems in nature can decohere without measurement because non-measurement based decoherences exist in the unitary evolution of off equilibrium systems that are not perfectly isolated. In some systems near a tipping point of decoherence, a measurement can change the physical system enough to cause it to decohere. It is difficult to imagine having a completely satisfying explanation for the measurement problem without a consensus definition of consciousness. We know that consciousness is thought and awareness and the other terms in the definition section that are equivalent to thought. However, we still cannot deeply explain consciousness other than our experience of it and recognition of its synonyms.

The

simulation hypothesis proposes that reality could be a computer simulation, which implies it is made of code [

1]. Physicists Beane, Davoudi, and Savage propose this can be experimentally constrained [

81]. Simulations typically run with a finite number of resources. This may be accomplished by discretization of spacetime, as in several quantum gravity theories, such as ours (emergence theory). One of the proposed experimental signatures to look for would be an anisotropy in the distribution of cosmic rays that is consistent with the simulation hypothesis. Campbell et al. have proposed experimental tests for the simulation hypothesis [

82]. These same tests could be applied to the SSH if it turns out these experiments suggest that we are in a simulation.

Again, the simulation hypothesis is based on the dualistic idea that there is a physical reality and various non-physical or information theoretic simulated realities. The SSH rejects this dualism and suggests that it is more probable that we are in a mental self-simulated universe, which may be less far-fetched than the idea that we are in a simulation living in a different physical universe. One reason is Occam’s razor and another is evidence. Specifically, in [

14,

15,

27], one of the authors discusses a cosmology that allows for a code-theoretic universe to self-simulate or self-actualize itself into existence from the “future”. A similar cosmology was discussed by [

17]. Consciousness that emerges at late stages of the self-simulation eventually evolves to a magnitude sufficient to hold, abstractly in pure informational thought space, the quantum gravity code necessary for its own self-simulation run or self-evolution starting at the big bang. This strange loop is similar to a mind running a simulation from an initial condition and where that simulation becomes the mind itself after a long run-time. Of course, the self-simulation idea requires time to be an emergent illusion, as discussed by Rovelli [

29] and in different terms by Susskind and Maldacena [

83].

Advanced waves have been interpreted as being related to consciousness or measurement in multiple QM interpretations. Aharonov was inspired by Feynman to create an independent advanced wavefunction, leading to the two-state vector formalism [

25,

84]. This is also compatible with the transactional, many worlds and Bohmian interpretations. Sutherland has generalized Bohmian mechanics, which leads to a notion of post-quantum mechanics and introduces new nonlocal dynamics [

85,

86]. The evidence for non-locality is sufficient enough to presume spacetime, whether fundamental or not, is non-local [

87,

88,

89,

90].

Accordingly, we may adopt a physical logic: A influences B influences C influences A influences B, and so on. That is, an emergent mind-like substrate of the universe in the future can self-actualize itself by creating the code and initial conditions to run its own simulation—all within the abstraction of pure self-simulated information in the form of choice, observation or awareness as a strange loop with hierarchical order but not time. We may think of this with time and presume it to be non-local or presume time to be illusionary, emergent or non-fundamental. The substrate, then, is made of information called thought or consciousness. Its evolutionary self-simulation run is also made of the same abstract information, i.e.,

meaning within thought or mind-stuff [

12,

32,

33,

34,

36,

91,

92,

93]. Sarfatti’s interpretation of Sutherland’s extension of Bohmian mechanics [

94] suggests that the wavefunction is itself a property of consciousness, while the particle is the domain of material reality. In this dualistic view, dividing reality between physical stuff and consciousness, advanced waves allow for consciousness to have new retrocausal dynamics on the physical stuff. From this perspective, consciousness of the future can influence the past so long as freewill is not violated.

Our view is similar to Sarfatti’s interpretation, except that we do not take a Bohmian approach and divide things into physical stuff and consciousness. It is all information in the self-actualized strange loop of panconsciousness, where the physical information is $EP$ thought and the non-physical information is $EC$ thought. Our approach is also different in that we subscribe to a discretized spacetime view. Bohmian mechanics does not.

It is noteworthy that if the large scale causal structure of the universe is a strange loop, instead of having some beginning for which we have no explanation, then perhaps there would be empirical implications, which may ultimately be observed.

With this ontological background in place, let us discuss the regime of $EC$ information. When we think of the idea of love or politics, is this self-referential symbolism? Is it information? Of course, these are not cases of self-referential symbolism. However, they are indeed two networks of compound information. These packages are not physical information, such as the self-referential geometric information of the base-code elements in the simulation that can be organized into emergent levels of self-referential $EP$, e.g., a biosphere or solar system. However, $EC$ is equally as real and causal as $EP$ information and so must be considered part of the universe’s total information along with i and the regime of $EP$. Each conserved stratum of $EP$ information is built upon the conserved strata under it. To be more precise, the choices of $EP$ configuration are conserved over a finite simulation run time because the degrees of freedom in a discrete possibility space-based code, such as ours, are finite. There are a finite number of possible animations or ordered sets of on/off state selections on the finite quasicrystal possibility space. The quantum states therefore exist in a finite-dimensional space.

This is not the case for the possibility space of $EC$ information that can be created over a finite simulation run. The $EC$ category is the regime of non-self-referential symbolism, where we can say $X=\mathit{anything}\text{}\mathit{other}\text{}\mathit{than}\text{}X$, and where both X and anything other than X are members of the set anything which can be thought of. Put simply, we may think about anything from an infinite set of things to create in our mind. Again, in an information only universe, this form of $EC$ information—thoughts—is equally as real and influential as the self-referential physical information that the universal consciousness self-simulation substrate can hold. Thus, the regime of $EP$ possibilities is a set of selections or relationships in a finite possibility space. It is discrete and may lead to a quantum gravity formalism with a discretized probability density distribution. The regime of $EC$ possibilities is the infinite set of all possible symbolic relationships and combinations thereof, i.e., meaning that one can choose to think of from the infinite universe of possible thoughts. Unlike the $EP$ space, the $EC$ possibility space is smooth and continuous—infinite. Sequential choices in the regime of thought or consciousness of what and when to measure create reality by coding a concatenation network of wavefunction collapses—forming a completely different universe than the highest probability path(s) through the unitary evolution if no measurements had occurred. It creates a network of short-lived unitary evolutions between measurements defined by the freewill choices of conscious entities to strategically order sequences of measurements. A measurement itself is a thought in the mind of the observer, which prematurely kills off or terminates the deterministic unitary evolution that existed prior to the measurement and after the last measurement by creating a new function that will live until the next observation and thought about it. All functions exist in the possibilities of the Hilbert space. The choices of when, where, and what to measure are $EC$ thoughts that can be chosen to change the unitary evolution of the $EP$ information.

As shown in

Figure 1, conscious humans are part physical information (made of the numerical and geometric spatiotemporal information/thought in the

$EP$ regime) and part abstract non-self-referential symbolic thought from the

$EC$ regime. The commonalities between the

$EP$ and

$EC$ regimes include the following:

They are both mutually dependent upon one another for their origin and existence. They each interact with one another.

They are both made of pure symbolic information in a language-theoretic informational paradigm, where relationships between two or more symbols of meaning at one stratum form synergistic meaning, and therefore higher-order symbols of meaning that form a new higher-order symbolic stratum.

In order for the SSH to be causally consistent, $EC$ must emerge to be complex enough to allow for a self-simulation. This is what allows for the completion of the causal circle or emergent whole. If $EC$ were to never emerge, the system would never gain any consciousness, and the SSH would be illogical. Relativistic time as we know it is irrelevant in relation to the panconsciousness because the self-simulation strange loop is created as a whole or grand thought, which, from a wavefunction perspective, includes advanced and retarded waves. Since the self-simulation requires emergent consciousness to run in the first place, this makes the likelihood of emergent life to be inevitable. Driven by the PEL, the panconsciousness can send advanced waves that encourage emergent structures, such that additional observers can emerge.

Of course, there are systems in the $E{P}_{1}$ regime of fundamental particles, such as a rock, that do not contain meaningful $EC$ information. There can also be emergent consciousnesses in the $EC$ regime that, unlike humans, are not partially in $EP$ and $EC$. For example, coherent patterns of pure $EC$ information can allow the emergence of higher-order collective consciousnesses that is not at the level of the panconsciousness but that is, in some sense, a higher level than human animal-level consciousness. Furthermore, there can be coherent patterns of mathematical information, such as topological information, at the quantum gravity regime that can be understood as consciousness but which is not made of fundamental particles. There may be topological consciousnesses that can emerge that are trans-temporal in nature, which, of course, would be an entirely different form of thought than we are familiar with. However, the $EP$ and $EC$ regimes cannot be disassociated, since the hierarchical stack of information based symbolic systems is interactive, non-locally connected and self-embedded.

As mentioned, this model posits that our consciousness instructs the panconsciousness to project the wavefunction to a new state upon measurement. Our thesis does not imply that the panconsciousness must always follow what we currently label as the laws of physics or QM. If this were true, it would be something that can be tested for using humans who envision things that violate physics or influence the statistics of QM [

76,

77,

78]. Because emergent conscious entities, such as us, instruct the panconsciousness substrate to perform mathematical operations in the

$EP$ regime that comport with our

$EC$ thoughts about our surroundings or things non-local to us, such violations of canonical physical theories appear to be allowed.

Other than the consciousness activated collapse of the wavefunction, there is another way to recognize how $EC$ or consciousness is physically causal. The following thought experiment is instructive. Consider a system of particles that is organized as a conscious human at the bottom of a deep energy well, such as the base of a mountain. The human may create an abstract story in her mind that climbing out of the energy well every day is a good and strategic thing to do. Only because of that abstract belief and choice, living in pure $EC$, the probability for all the particles of her body to do this each day will be close to 100%. Quantum statistics would never predict this because it is not the statistics of the behavior of conscious systems. Consciousness, via observation, is what kills off the deterministic unitary evolution of the wavefunction in a manner not described by the Schrodinger equation. QM merely describes statistical fluctuations that lead to emergent classical conservation laws. QM discusses statistical dynamics between measurements. Consciousness determines a process of sequential measurements via self-reflection and external observation.

On the other hand, we can imagine a woman at the bottom of the hill being devoid of consciousness, such as with a brain-dead state but with all the particles in her body in the same states as when she was not brain-dead. In this case, devoid of consciousness, the probability of her climbing a macroscopic hill approaches zero and reproduces the statistics of classical mechanics, as she does not have enough consciousness to influence causal reality via free will to expel energy. That is, the evolution of her system would follow the unitary evolution of a wavefunction, where the probability to go up the hill would comport with QM and be very close to zero.

It is trivially true that freewill or the conscious ability to choose to go against the statistics of classical and quantum physics is a fact relating to some unknown foundation beyond QM. Consciousness causes a deviation from the statistics as a type of non-ergodic causal entropic force. For example, the desire for a human to experience novelty may affect the statistics to prefer a less likely path and motivate her to climb a mountain. This claim is also supported by the fact that the canonical interpretations of QM hold a special place for consciousness insofar as it uniquely being capable of actualizing reality into existence from a non-real space of quantum possibilities into the space of physical realism.