In this paper, we study the statistical properties of the stationary firing-rate states of a neural network model with quenched disorder. The model has arbitrary size, discrete-time evolution equations and binary firing rates, while the topology and the strength of the synaptic connections are randomly generated from known, generally arbitrary, probability distributions. We derived semi-analytical expressions of the occurrence probability of the stationary states and the mean multistability diagram of the model, in terms of the distribution of the synaptic connections and of the external stimuli to the network. Our calculations rely on the probability distribution of the bifurcation points of the stationary states with respect to the external stimuli, calculated in terms of the permanent of special matrices using extreme value theory. While our semi-analytical expressions are exact for any size of the network and for any distribution of the synaptic connections, we focus our study on networks made of several populations, that we term “statistically homogeneous” to indicate that the probability distribution of their connections depends only on the pre- and post-synaptic population indexes, and not on the individual synaptic pair indexes. In this specific case, we calculated analytically the permanent, obtaining a compact formula that outperforms of several orders of magnitude the Balasubramanian-Bax-Franklin-Glynn algorithm. To conclude, by applying the Fisher-Tippett-Gnedenko theorem, we derived asymptotic expressions of the stationary-state statistics of multi-population networks in the large-network-size limit, in terms of the Gumbel (double exponential) distribution. We also provide a Python implementation of our formulas and some examples of the results generated by the code.
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