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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

EEG Characterization of the Alzheimer’s Disease Continuum by Means of Multiscale Entropies

1
Biomedical Engineering Group, E.T.S.I. de Telecomunicación, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid, Spain
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Instituto de Investigación en Matemáticas (IMUVA), Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid, Spain
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Instituto de Neurociencias de Castilla y León (INCYL), Universidad de Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
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Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto (IPATIMUP), 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
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Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde (i3S), 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
6
Center of Mathematics of the University of Porto (CMUP), 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2019, 21(6), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21060544
Received: 6 May 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 28 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy Applications in EEG/MEG)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with high prevalence, known for its highly disabling symptoms. The aim of this study was to characterize the alterations in the irregularity and the complexity of the brain activity along the AD continuum. Both irregularity and complexity can be studied applying entropy-based measures throughout multiple temporal scales. In this regard, multiscale sample entropy (MSE) and refined multiscale spectral entropy (rMSSE) were calculated from electroencephalographic (EEG) data. Five minutes of resting-state EEG activity were recorded from 51 healthy controls, 51 mild cognitive impaired (MCI) subjects, 51 mild AD patients (ADMIL), 50 moderate AD patients (ADMOD), and 50 severe AD patients (ADSEV). Our results show statistically significant differences (p-values < 0.05, FDR-corrected Kruskal–Wallis test) between the five groups at each temporal scale. Additionally, average slope values and areas under MSE and rMSSE curves revealed significant changes in complexity mainly for controls vs. MCI, MCI vs. ADMIL and ADMOD vs. ADSEV comparisons (p-values < 0.05, FDR-corrected Mann–Whitney U-test). These findings indicate that MSE and rMSSE reflect the neuronal disturbances associated with the development of dementia, and may contribute to the development of new tools to track the AD progression. View Full-Text
Keywords: Electroencephalography (EEG); multiscale sample entropy (MSE); refined multiscale spectral entropy (rMSSE); Alzheimer’s disease (AD); mild cognitive impairment (MCI); AD continuum Electroencephalography (EEG); multiscale sample entropy (MSE); refined multiscale spectral entropy (rMSSE); Alzheimer’s disease (AD); mild cognitive impairment (MCI); AD continuum
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maturana-Candelas, A.; Gómez, C.; Poza, J.; Pinto, N.; Hornero, R. EEG Characterization of the Alzheimer’s Disease Continuum by Means of Multiscale Entropies. Entropy 2019, 21, 544.

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