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Digital Volume Pulse Measured at the Fingertip as an Indicator of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in the Aged and Diabetic

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School of Electrical and Information Engineering, North Minzu University, No. 204 North Wenchang Street, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China
2
Basic Experimental Teaching and Engineering Training Center, North Minzu University, No. 204 North Wenchang Street, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750021, China
3
School of Science, Ningxia Medical University, No. 1160 Shengli Street, Ningxia 750004, China
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Department of Physics, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Jendral A. Yani street, Kragilan, Tamanan, Kec. Banguntapan, Bantul, Daerah Istimewa, Yogyakarta 55191, Indonesia
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College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
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Department of Electrical Engineering, Dong Hwa University, No. 1, Sec. 2, Da Hsueh Rd., Shoufeng, Hualien 97401, Taiwan, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Signifies equal contribution compared with the corresponding author.
Entropy 2019, 21(12), 1229; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21121229
Received: 24 November 2019 / Revised: 14 December 2019 / Accepted: 14 December 2019 / Published: 16 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Nonlinear Dynamics in Medicine, Health, and Life Sciences)
This study investigated the application of a modified percussion entropy index (PEIPPI) in assessing the complexity of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) for diabetic peripheral neuropathy prognosis. The index was acquired by comparing the obedience of the fluctuation tendency in the change between the amplitudes of continuous digital volume pulse (DVP) and variations in the peak-to-peak interval (PPI) from a decomposed intrinsic mode function (i.e., IMF6) through ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). In total, 100 middle-aged subjects were split into 3 groups: healthy subjects (group 1, 48–89 years, n = 34), subjects with type 2 diabetes without peripheral neuropathy within 5 years (group 2, 42–86 years, n = 42, HbA1c ≥ 6.5%), and type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy within 5 years (group 3, 37–75 years, n = 24). The results were also found to be very successful at discriminating between PEIPPI values among the three groups (p < 0.017), and indicated significant associations with the anthropometric (i.e., body weight and waist circumference) and serum biochemical (i.e., triglycerides, glycated hemoglobin, and fasting blood glucose) parameters in all subjects (p < 0.05). The present study, which utilized the DVP signals of aged, overweight subjects and diabetic patients, successfully determined the PPI intervals from IMF6 through EEMD. The PEIPPI can provide a prognosis of peripheral neuropathy from diabetic patients within 5 years after photoplethysmography (PPG) measurement. View Full-Text
Keywords: percussion entropy index; baroreflex sensitivity; autonomic nervous function; digital volume pulse; photoplethysmography; peak-to-peak interval; ensemble empirical mode decomposition; diabetic peripheral neuropathy percussion entropy index; baroreflex sensitivity; autonomic nervous function; digital volume pulse; photoplethysmography; peak-to-peak interval; ensemble empirical mode decomposition; diabetic peripheral neuropathy
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Wei, H.-C.; Ta, N.; Hu, W.-R.; Xiao, M.-X.; Tang, X.-J.; Haryadi, B.; Liou, J.J.; Wu, H.-T. Digital Volume Pulse Measured at the Fingertip as an Indicator of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in the Aged and Diabetic. Entropy 2019, 21, 1229.

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