This paper studies the causal relationship between Bitcoin and other investment assets. We first test Granger causality and then calculate transfer entropy as an information-theoretic approach. Unlike the Granger causality test, we discover that transfer entropy clearly identifies causal interdependency between Bitcoin and other assets, including gold, stocks, and the U.S. dollar. However, for symbolic transfer entropy, the dynamic rise–fall pattern in return series shows an asymmetric information flow from other assets to Bitcoin. Our results imply that the Bitcoin market actively interacts with major asset markets, and its long-term equilibrium, as a nascent market, gradually synchronizes with that of other investment assets.
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