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Open AccessArticle

3C3R, an Image Encryption Algorithm Based on BBI, 2D-CA, and SM-DNA

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School of Computer Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
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Faculty of Computer Science Department, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
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School of Information and Communication Technologies, University of L’Aquila, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
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School of Communication and Information Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2019, 21(11), 1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21111075
Received: 15 October 2019 / Revised: 28 October 2019 / Accepted: 30 October 2019 / Published: 2 November 2019
Color image encryption has enticed a lot of attention in recent years. Many authors proposed a chaotic system-based encryption algorithms for that purpose. However, due to the shortcomings of the low dimensional chaotic systems, similar rule structure for RGB channels, and the small keyspace, many of those were cryptanalyzed by chosen-plaintext or other well-known attacks. A Security vulnerability exists because of the same method being applied over the RGB channels. This paper aims to introduce a new three-channel three rules (3C3R) image encryption algorithm along with two novel mathematical models for DNA rule generator and bit inversion. A different rule structure was applied in the different RGB-channels. In the R-channel, a novel Block-based Bit Inversion (BBI) is introduced, in the G-channel Von-Neumann (VN) and Rotated Von-Neumann (RVN)- based 2D-cellular structure is applied. In the B-channel, a novel bidirectional State Machine-based DNA rule generator (SM-DNA) is introduced. Simulations and results show that the proposed 3C3R encryption algorithm is robust against all well-known attacks particularly for the known-plaintext attacks, statistical attacks, brute-force attacks, differential attacks, and occlusion attacks, etc. Also, unlike earlier encryption algorithms, the 3C3R has no security vulnerability.
Keywords: image encryption; DNA sequence; State Machine; bit inversion; Entropy; cellular automata; security image encryption; DNA sequence; State Machine; bit inversion; Entropy; cellular automata; security
MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, S.; Han, L.; Mudassir, G.; Guehguih, B.; Ullah, H. 3C3R, an Image Encryption Algorithm Based on BBI, 2D-CA, and SM-DNA. Entropy 2019, 21, 1075.

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