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Open AccessArticle

Kolmogorov Complexity of Coronary Sinus Atrial Electrograms before Ablation Predicts Termination of Atrial Fibrillation after Pulmonary Vein Isolation

1
Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw 00-662, Poland
2
Department of Cardiology, Asklepios Clinic St. Georg, 20099 Hamburg, Germany
3
Department of Cardiology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide 5000, Australia
4
Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Medicover Hospital, 02-972 Warsaw, Poland
5
Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw 04-628, Poland
6
Department of Physiology, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2019, 21(10), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21100970
Received: 28 August 2019 / Revised: 18 September 2019 / Accepted: 30 September 2019 / Published: 4 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shannon Information and Kolmogorov Complexity)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is related to a very complex local electrical activity reflected in the rich morphology of intracardiac electrograms. The link between electrogram complexity and efficacy of the catheter ablation is unclear. We test the hypothesis that the Kolmogorov complexity of a single atrial bipolar electrogram recorded during AF within the coronary sinus (CS) at the beginning of the catheter ablation may predict AF termination directly after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). The study population consisted of 26 patients for whom 30 s baseline electrograms were recorded. In all cases PVI was performed. If AF persisted after PVI, ablation was extended beyond PVs. Kolmogorov complexity estimated by Lempel–Ziv complexity and the block decomposition method was calculated and compared with other measures: Shannon entropy, AF cycle length, dominant frequency, regularity, organization index, electrogram fractionation, sample entropy and wave morphology similarity index. A 5 s window length was chosen as optimal in calculations. There was a significant difference in Kolmogorov complexity between patients with AF termination directly after PVI compared to patients undergoing additional ablation (p < 0.01). No such difference was seen for remaining complexity parameters. Kolmogorov complexity of CS electrograms measured at baseline before PVI can predict self-termination of AF directly after PVI.
Keywords: atrial fibrillation; catheter ablation; electrogram complexity; Kolmogorov complexity; Shannon entropy; symbolic dynamics atrial fibrillation; catheter ablation; electrogram complexity; Kolmogorov complexity; Shannon entropy; symbolic dynamics
MDPI and ACS Style

Stępień, K.; Kuklik, P.; Żebrowski, J.J.; Sanders, P.; Derejko, P.; Podziemski, P. Kolmogorov Complexity of Coronary Sinus Atrial Electrograms before Ablation Predicts Termination of Atrial Fibrillation after Pulmonary Vein Isolation. Entropy 2019, 21, 970.

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