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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

The Information Loss Problem: An Analogue Gravity Perspective

by Stefano Liberati 1,2,3,*, Giovanni Tricella 1,2,3,* and Andrea Trombettoni 1,2,3,4,*
1
SISSA-International School for Advanced Studies, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste, Italy
2
INFN Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste, Italy
3
IFPU-Institute for Fundamental Physics of the Universe, Via Beirut 2, 34014 Trieste, Italy
4
CNR-IOM DEMOCRITOS Simulation Center, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2019, 21(10), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21100940
Received: 21 August 2019 / Revised: 13 September 2019 / Accepted: 22 September 2019 / Published: 25 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Relativistic Quantum Information)
Analogue gravity can be used to reproduce the phenomenology of quantum field theory in curved spacetime and in particular phenomena such as cosmological particle creation and Hawking radiation. In black hole physics, taking into account the backreaction of such effects on the metric requires an extension to semiclassical gravity and leads to an apparent inconsistency in the theory: the black hole evaporation induces a breakdown of the unitary quantum evolution leading to the so-called information loss problem. Here, we show that analogue gravity can provide an interesting perspective on the resolution of this problem, albeit the backreaction in analogue systems is not described by semiclassical Einstein equations. In particular, by looking at the simpler problem of cosmological particle creation, we show, in the context of Bose–Einstein condensates analogue gravity, that the emerging analogue geometry and quasi-particles have correlations due to the quantum nature of the atomic degrees of freedom underlying the emergent spacetime. The quantum evolution is, of course, always unitary, but on the whole Hilbert space, which cannot be exactly factorized a posteriori in geometry and quasi-particle components. In analogy, in a black hole evaporation one should expect a continuous process creating correlations between the Hawking quanta and the microscopic quantum degrees of freedom of spacetime, implying that only a full quantum gravity treatment would be able to resolve the information loss problem by proving the unitary evolution on the full Hilbert space. View Full-Text
Keywords: analogue gravity; Bose-Einstein condensation; information loss; cosmological particle creation analogue gravity; Bose-Einstein condensation; information loss; cosmological particle creation
MDPI and ACS Style

Liberati, S.; Tricella, G.; Trombettoni, A. The Information Loss Problem: An Analogue Gravity Perspective. Entropy 2019, 21, 940.

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