# A Review of Graph and Network Complexity from an Algorithmic Information Perspective

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. Notation, Metrics, and Properties of Graphs and Networks

#### 1.2. Classical Information Theory

## 2. Classical Information and Entropy of Graphs

#### Fragility of Computable Measures Such as Entropy

## 3. Moving Towards Algorithmic Complexity of Graphs

#### 3.1. Lossless Compression in Network Complexity

#### 3.2. Alternatives to Lossless Compression

#### 3.3. Algorithmic Information Theory

#### 3.4. Algorithmic Probability

#### 3.5. Approximations to Graph Algorithmic Complexity

#### 3.6. Reconstructing K of Graphs from Local Patterns

#### 3.7. Group-Theoretic Robustness of Algorithmic Graph Complexity

#### 3.8. $K\left(G\right)$ Is Not a Graph Invariant But Highly Informative

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**The adjacency matrix is not an invariant description of an unlabelled graph. Two isomorphic graphs can have two different adjacency matrix representations. This translates into the fact that the graphs can be relabelled, thus being isomorphic. However, similar graphs have adjacency matrices with similar algorithmic information content, as proven in [4].

**Figure 2.**From simple to random graphs. The graphs are ordered based on the estimation of their algorithmic complexity (K). $K\left(G\right)\sim {log}_{2}\left|V\left(G\right)\right|={log}_{2}15\sim 3.9$ bits when a graph is simple (

**left**) and is highly compressible. In contrast, a random graph (

**right**) with the same number of nodes and number of links requires more information to be specified, because there is no simple rule connecting the nodes and therefore $K\left(G\right)\sim \left|E\right(G\left)\right|=15$ in bits, i.e., the ends of each edge have to be specified (so a tighter bound would be $2\left|E\right(G\left)\right|\sim 30$ for an $ER$ graph of edge density $\sim 0.5$.

**Table 1.**Theoretical calculations of K for different network topologies for $0\le p\le 1$. Clearly, minimum values are for fully connected, fully disconnected and recursive graphs while maximum K is reached for edge-independent $ER$ graphs with edge density $p=0.5$ and fixed number of nodes for which $K\left(ER\right)\sim (\genfrac{}{}{0pt}{}{\left|V\right(ER\left)\right|}{2})/2$. For $WS$ graphs, p is the rewiring probability.

Type of Graph/Network | Asymptotic Expected Behaviour |
---|---|

Empty/Complete $\left(E\right)$ | $K\left(E\right)\sim log\left|V\right(E\left)\right|$ |

Regular recursive $\left(R\right)$ (e.g., cycles, stars) | $K\left(R\right)\sim log\left|V\right(R\left)\right|$ |

Barabási-Albert $\left(BA\right)$ | $K\left(BA\right)\sim \left|V\right(BA\left)\right|+c$ |

Watts-Strogatz $\left(WS\right)$ | ${lim}_{p\to 0}K\left(WS\right)\sim K\left(R\right)$ |

${lim}_{p\to 1}K\left(WS\right)\sim K\left(ER\right)$ or $K\left(E{R}^{\prime}\right)$ | |

Algorithmic random Erdős-Rényi $\left(ER\right)$ | $K\left(ER\right)\sim \frac{n(n-1)}{16p|p-1|}$ |

Pseudo-random Erdős-Rényi $\left(E{R}^{\prime}\right)$ | $K\left(E{R}^{\prime}\right)\sim K\left(S\right)$ |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Zenil, H.; Kiani, N.A.; Tegnér, J.
A Review of Graph and Network Complexity from an Algorithmic Information Perspective. *Entropy* **2018**, *20*, 551.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e20080551

**AMA Style**

Zenil H, Kiani NA, Tegnér J.
A Review of Graph and Network Complexity from an Algorithmic Information Perspective. *Entropy*. 2018; 20(8):551.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e20080551

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Zenil, Hector, Narsis A. Kiani, and Jesper Tegnér.
2018. "A Review of Graph and Network Complexity from an Algorithmic Information Perspective" *Entropy* 20, no. 8: 551.
https://doi.org/10.3390/e20080551