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Open AccessArticle

Application of Permutation Entropy and Permutation Min-Entropy in Multiple Emotional States Analysis of RRI Time Series

1
School of Control Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, 250061, China
2
Centro de Investigaciones Ópticas (CONICET La Plata—CIC), C.C. 3, 1897 Gonnet, Argentina
3
Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), 1900 La Plata, Argentina
4
School of Instrument Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210018, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2018, 20(3), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20030148
Received: 14 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permutation Entropy & Its Interdisciplinary Applications)
This study’s aim was to apply permutation entropy (PE) and permutation min-entropy (PME) over an RR interval time series to quantify the changes in cardiac activity among multiple emotional states. Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals were recorded under six emotional states (neutral, happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust) in 60 healthy subjects at a rate of 1000 Hz. For each emotional state, ECGs were recorded for 5 min and the RR interval time series was extracted from these ECGs. The obtained results confirm that PE and PME increase significantly during the emotional states of happiness, sadness, anger, and disgust. Both symbolic quantifiers also increase but not in a significant way for the emotional state of fear. Moreover, it is found that PME is more sensitive than PE for discriminating non-neutral from neutral emotional states. View Full-Text
Keywords: permutation entropy; permutation min-entropy; emotion recognition; heart rate variability; electrocardiogram (ECG) permutation entropy; permutation min-entropy; emotion recognition; heart rate variability; electrocardiogram (ECG)
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Xia, Y.; Yang, L.; Zunino, L.; Shi, H.; Zhuang, Y.; Liu, C. Application of Permutation Entropy and Permutation Min-Entropy in Multiple Emotional States Analysis of RRI Time Series. Entropy 2018, 20, 148.

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