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Open AccessArticle

Granger Causality and Jensen–Shannon Divergence to Determine Dominant Atrial Area in Atrial Fibrillation

Escuela Politécnica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Camino del Pozuelo sn, 16071 Cuenca, Spain
Instituto ITACA, Universitad Politécnica de Valencia, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad De Alcalá, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona, Km. 33,600, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain
Unidad de Arritmias, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Plaza de Cristo Rey sn, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Unidad de Arritmias, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Ctra. de Colmenar Viejo km. 9,100, 28034 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2018, 20(1), 57;
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy in Signal Analysis)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is already the most commonly occurring arrhythmia. Catheter pulmonary vein ablation has emerged as a treatment that is able to make the arrhythmia disappear; nevertheless, recurrence to arrhythmia is very frequent. In this study, it is proposed to perform an analysis of the electrical signals recorded from bipolar catheters at three locations, pulmonary veins and the right and left atria, before to and during the ablation procedure. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce data dimension and Granger causality and divergence techniques were applied to analyse connectivity along the atria, in three main regions: pulmonary veins, left atrium (LA) and right atrium (RA). The results showed that, before the procedure, patients with recurrence in the arrhythmia had greater connectivity between atrial areas. Moreover, during the ablation procedure, in patients with recurrence in the arrhythmial both atria were more connected than in patients that maintained sinus rhythms. These results can be helpful for procedures designing to end AF. View Full-Text
Keywords: atrial fibrillation; ablation; causality; divergence atrial fibrillation; ablation; causality; divergence
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Cervigón, R.; Castells, F.; Gómez-Pulido, J.M.; Pérez-Villacastín, J.; Moreno, J. Granger Causality and Jensen–Shannon Divergence to Determine Dominant Atrial Area in Atrial Fibrillation. Entropy 2018, 20, 57.

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