Next Article in Journal
Cosine Similarity Entropy: Self-Correlation-Based Complexity Analysis of Dynamical Systems
Next Article in Special Issue
Dynamic Model for a Uniform Microwave-Assisted Continuous Flow Process of Ethyl Acetate Production
Previous Article in Journal
K-Dependence Bayesian Classifier Ensemble
Previous Article in Special Issue
Investigating the Thermodynamic Performances of TO-Based Metamaterial Tunable Cells with an Entropy Generation Approach
Open AccessArticle

On the Deposition Equilibrium of Carbon Nanotubes or Graphite in the Reforming Processes of Lower Hydrocarbon Fuels

Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Institute of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection Processes, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Aleja Piastów 42, 71-065 Szczecin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2017, 19(12), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/e19120650
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 25 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 30 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics in Material Science)
The modeling of carbon deposition from C-H-O reformates has usually employed thermodynamic data for graphite, but has rarely employed such data for impure filamentous carbon. Therefore, electrochemical data for the literature on the chemical potential of two types of purified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are included in the study. Parameter values determining the thermodynamic equilibrium of the deposition of either graphite or CNTs are computed for dry and wet reformates from natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. The calculation results are presented as the atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C) against temperature (200 to 100 °C) for various pressures (1 to 30 bar). Areas of O/C for either carbon deposition or deposition-free are computed, and indicate the critical O/C values below which the deposition can occur. Only three types of deposited carbon were found in the studied equilibrium conditions: Graphite, multi-walled CNTs, and single-walled CNTs in bundles. The temperature regions of the appearance of the thermodynamically stable forms of solid carbon are numerically determined as being independent of pressure and the analyzed reactants. The modeling indicates a significant increase in the critical O/C for the deposition of CNTs against that for graphite. The highest rise in the critical O/C, of up to 290% at 30 bar, was found for the wet reforming process. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon deposition; carbon nanotubes; wet and dry reforming; hydrocarbon fuels carbon deposition; carbon nanotubes; wet and dry reforming; hydrocarbon fuels
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Jaworski, Z.; Pianko-Oprych, P. On the Deposition Equilibrium of Carbon Nanotubes or Graphite in the Reforming Processes of Lower Hydrocarbon Fuels. Entropy 2017, 19, 650.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop