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Entropy Applications to Water Monitoring Network Design: A Review

Department of Civil Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S4L8, Canada
School of Geography and Earth Sciences, NSERC Canadian FloodNet, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S4L8, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2017, 19(11), 613;
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy Applications in Environmental and Water Engineering)
PDF [265 KB, uploaded 15 November 2017]


Having reliable water monitoring networks is an essential component of water resources and environmental management. A standardized process for the design of water monitoring networks does not exist with the exception of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) general guidelines about the minimum network density. While one of the major challenges in the design of optimal hydrometric networks has been establishing design objectives, information theory has been successfully adopted to network design problems by providing measures of the information content that can be deliverable from a station or a network. This review firstly summarizes the common entropy terms that have been used in water monitoring network designs. Then, this paper deals with the recent applications of the entropy concept for water monitoring network designs, which are categorized into (1) precipitation; (2) streamflow and water level; (3) water quality; and (4) soil moisture and groundwater networks. The integrated design method for multivariate monitoring networks is also covered. Despite several issues, entropy theory has been well suited to water monitoring network design. However, further work is still required to provide design standards and guidelines for operational use. View Full-Text
Keywords: entropy; water monitoring; network design; hydrometric network; information theory; entropy applications entropy; water monitoring; network design; hydrometric network; information theory; entropy applications
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Keum, J.; Kornelsen, K.C.; Leach, J.M.; Coulibaly, P. Entropy Applications to Water Monitoring Network Design: A Review. Entropy 2017, 19, 613.

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