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Entropy 2017, 19(1), 34;

Implementing Demons and Ratchets

ThermaWatts, LLC, Renton, WA 98057, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kevin H. Knuth
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 5 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 January 2017 / Published: 14 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Limits to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Experiment and Theory)
Full-Text   |   PDF [8181 KB, uploaded 19 January 2017]   |  


Experimental results show that ratchets may be implemented in semiconductor and chemical systems, bypassing the second law and opening up huge gains in energy production. This paper summarizes or describes experiments and results on systems that effect demons and ratchets operating in chemical or electrical domains. One creates temperature differences that can be harvested by a heat engine. A second produces light with only heat input. A third produces harvestable electrical potential directly. These systems share creating particles in one location, destroying them in another and moving them between locations by diffusion (Brownian motion). All absorb ambient heat as they produce other energy forms. None requires an external hot and cold side. The economic and social impacts of these conversions of ambient heat to work are, of course, well-understood and huge. The experimental results beg for serious work on the chance that they are valid. View Full-Text
Keywords: second law; thermodynamics; direct conversion; epicatalysis; semiconductor; LED; Brownian ratchet; Maxwell’s demon; ambient heat; energy second law; thermodynamics; direct conversion; epicatalysis; semiconductor; LED; Brownian ratchet; Maxwell’s demon; ambient heat; energy

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Orem, P.M.; Orem, F.M. Implementing Demons and Ratchets. Entropy 2017, 19, 34.

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