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The Case for Tetrahedral Oxy-subhydride (TOSH) Structures in the Exclusion Zones of Anchored Polar Solvents Including Water
Open AccessArticle

Self-Organization at Aqueous Colloid-Membrane Interfaces and an Optical Method to Measure the Kinetics of Exclusion Zone Formation

by and *,†
Institute for Frontier Science, 6114 LaSalle Ave #605, Oakland, CA 94611, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Entropy 2014, 16(11), 5954-5975; https://doi.org/10.3390/e16115954
Received: 14 July 2014 / Revised: 9 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and EZ-Water)
Exclusion zone (EZ) formation at water-membrane interfaces was studied via bright- and dark-field microscopy. Various aqueous colloids including suspensions of charged microspheres, silicon dioxide particles, and raw whole milk were studied with Nafion® hydrophilic membranes. Interfacial formations observed included EZs and more complex patterns including striations, double layers, banding, dendritic aggregates of particles, and double-stranded structures resembling Birkeland current filaments in cold plasmas. A complex three-dimensional dynamic structure and continuous flow patterns persist in and around EZs, maintaining movement of the colloidal particles even after EZs are fully formed, for which a schematic is proposed. Since radiant energy is critical for EZ formation, we hypothesize that these interfacial phenomena are non-equilibrium dissipative structures that self-organize and self-maintain due to ongoing dynamic processes that may involve hydrodynamic interactions. Another experimental approach undertaken involved the construction of a microscope flow cell to measure the kinetics of EZ formation using sequential microphotography analyzed with macro-programmed ImageJ software to investigate effects of different types of conditioned water. No significant difference was found between spring water and the same water treated by a magnetic vortexer. A significant difference was found for municipal tap water compared to electrolyzed alkaline tap water from the same source. View Full-Text
Keywords: interfacial water; exclusion zone; aqueous colloid; self-organization; non-equilibrium; dissipative structure interfacial water; exclusion zone; aqueous colloid; self-organization; non-equilibrium; dissipative structure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jabs, H.; Rubik, B. Self-Organization at Aqueous Colloid-Membrane Interfaces and an Optical Method to Measure the Kinetics of Exclusion Zone Formation. Entropy 2014, 16, 5954-5975.

AMA Style

Jabs H, Rubik B. Self-Organization at Aqueous Colloid-Membrane Interfaces and an Optical Method to Measure the Kinetics of Exclusion Zone Formation. Entropy. 2014; 16(11):5954-5975.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jabs, Harry; Rubik, Beverly. 2014. "Self-Organization at Aqueous Colloid-Membrane Interfaces and an Optical Method to Measure the Kinetics of Exclusion Zone Formation" Entropy 16, no. 11: 5954-5975.

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