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Open AccessArticle

Redundancy in Systems Which Entertain a Model of Themselves: Interaction Information and the Self-Organization of Anticipation

Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR), University of Amsterdam, Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Entropy 2010, 12(1), 63-79; https://doi.org/10.3390/e12010063
Received: 1 December 2009 / Accepted: 28 December 2009 / Published: 6 January 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information and Entropy)
Mutual information among three or more dimensions (μ* = –Q) has been considered as interaction information. However, Krippendorff [1,2] has shown that this measure cannot be interpreted as a unique property of the interactions and has proposed an alternative measure of interaction information based on iterative approximation of maximum entropies. Q can then be considered as a measure of the difference between interaction information and redundancy generated in a model entertained by an observer. I argue that this provides us with a measure of the imprint of a second-order observing system—a model entertained by the system itself—on the underlying information processing. The second-order system communicates meaning hyper-incursively; an observation instantiates this meaning-processing within the information processing. The net results may add to or reduce the prevailing uncertainty. The model is tested empirically for the case where textual organization can be expected to contain intellectual organization in terms of distributions of title words, author names, and cited references. View Full-Text
Keywords: interaction information; redundancy; model; anticipation; meaning interaction information; redundancy; model; anticipation; meaning
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Leydesdorff, L. Redundancy in Systems Which Entertain a Model of Themselves: Interaction Information and the Self-Organization of Anticipation. Entropy 2010, 12, 63-79.

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