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Special Issue "Utilization of Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2008)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. René Kizek

Laboratory of Metalomics and Nanotechnology, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University and Central European Institute of Technology in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +420 545212044
Interests: electrochemical detection in biology; bioelectrochemistry; sensors; biosensors; peptides; proteins; nucleic acids

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biochemical and molecular-biological techniques still booms at all branches of biological research. Since successfully sequencing of human genome, rapid analysis of nucleic acids by various techniques has been developing intensively. The attention is mostly paid to recognizing of pathological sequence, which is related to diseases origin. Other field of research associated with nucleic acids analysis bases on studying and determining of changes of mRNA level as marker of various gene activity. “Switching of genes” is very common during development of all living beings, but the wrong timing of such switching can lead to many disorders and diseases including cancer. As it has been shown, count of human functional genes is very low, under 20 thousands (according to the last estimation), and thus can not be associated only with an organism development. Based on the mentioned facts, proteins are other group of biologically active compounds associated with the organism development. Research devoted to study of proteins called “proteomic research” is at very beginning.
Investigation the mentioned biological pathways can be done using battery techniques and methods. Very interesting and promising results bring techniques using various sensors and biosensors coupled with different types of detectors

This issue will include the following topics:

  1. suggestion and construction of sensors and biosensors for molecular and biochemical applications;
  2. new materials to construct of sensors (nanotechnology);
  3. advantages and disadvantages of various types of detection of biologically important compounds;
  4. sensors and biosensors for analysis of DNA and RNA;
  5. sensors and biosensors for analysis of aminoacids, peptides and proteins;
  6. chips and their utilizing for detection of DNA, RNA and proteins;
  7. practical aspects of utilizing of sensors and biosensors in biology: estimation of specific sequence of animals, plants; monitoring of biomarkers; human and veterinary medicine (diagnostic of diseases).

Dr. René Kizek
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • electrochemical sensors
  • DNA sensors
  • detection of proteins and DNA
  • molecular biology
  • cancer
  • human disease
  • sensor arrays
  • DNA and RNA chips
  • protein chips

Published Papers (41 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Utilization of Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Sensors 2008, 8(10), 6125-6131; doi:10.3390/s8106125
Received: 25 September 2008 / Accepted: 26 September 2008 / Published: 1 October 2008
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (457 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract Editorial note concerning the "Utilization of Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" special issue. Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Electrochemical Performance of a Carbon Nanotube/La-Doped TiO2 Nanocomposite and its Use for Preparation of an Electrochemical Nicotinic Acid Sensor
Sensors 2008, 8(11), 7085-7096; doi:10.3390/s8117085
Received: 1 September 2008 / Revised: 22 September 2008 / Accepted: 27 September 2008 / Published: 7 November 2008
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (482 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A carbon nanotube/La-doped TiO2 (La-TiO2) nanocomposite (CLTN) was prepared by a procedure similar to a complex/adsorption process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that the La-TiO2 distributes on the carbon nanotube walls. The CLTN was mixed with paraffin to
[...] Read more.
A carbon nanotube/La-doped TiO2 (La-TiO2) nanocomposite (CLTN) was prepared by a procedure similar to a complex/adsorption process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that the La-TiO2 distributes on the carbon nanotube walls. The CLTN was mixed with paraffin to form a CLTN paste for the CLTN paste electrode (CLTNPE). The electrochemical characteristics of CLTNPE were compared with that of conventional carbon electrodes such as the carbon paste electrode (CPE) and glass carbon electrode (GC). The CLTNPE exhibits electrochemical activity and was used to investigate the electrochemistry of nicotinic acid (NA). The modified electrode has a strong electrocatalytic effect on the redox of NA. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) redox potential of NA at the CLTNPE is 320 mV. The oxidation process of NA on the CLTNPE is pH dependent. A sensitive chronoamperometric response for NA was obtained covering a linear range from 1.0×10-6 mol·L-1 to 1.2×10-4 mol·L-1, with a detection limit of 2.7×10-7 mol·L-1. The NA sensor displays a remarkable sensitivity and stability. The mean recovery of NA in the human urine is 101.8%, with a mean variation coefficient (RSD) of 2.6%. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modelling Amperometric Biosensors Based on Chemically Modified Electrodes
Sensors 2008, 8(8), 4800-4820; doi:10.3390/s8084800
Received: 18 April 2008 / Accepted: 28 July 2008 / Published: 19 August 2008
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The response of an amperometric biosensor based on a chemically modified electrode was modelled numerically. A mathematical model of the biosensor is based on a system of non-linear reaction-diffusion equations. The modelling biosensor comprises two compartments: an enzyme layer and an outer diffusion
[...] Read more.
The response of an amperometric biosensor based on a chemically modified electrode was modelled numerically. A mathematical model of the biosensor is based on a system of non-linear reaction-diffusion equations. The modelling biosensor comprises two compartments: an enzyme layer and an outer diffusion layer. In order to define the main governing parameters the corresponding dimensionless mathematical model was derived. The digital simulation was carried out using the finite difference technique. The adequacy of the model was evaluated using analytical solutions known for very specific cases of the model parameters. By changing model parameters the output results were numerically analyzed at transition and steady state conditions. The influence of the substrate and mediator concentrations as well as of the thicknesses of the enzyme and diffusion layers on the biosensor response was investigated. Calculations showed complex kinetics of the biosensor response, especially when the biosensor acts under a mixed limitation of the diffusion and the enzyme interaction with the substrate. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Determination of Metallothionein in Larvae of Freshwater Midges (Chironomus riparius) Using Brdicka Reaction
Sensors 2008, 8(7), 4081-4094; doi:10.3390/s8074081
Received: 31 May 2008 / Revised: 6 July 2008 / Accepted: 6 July 2008 / Published: 10 July 2008
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Among wide spectrum of biomolecules induced by various stress factors low molecular mass protein called metallothionein (MT) is suitable for assessment of the heavy metal environmental pollution. The aim of this work was to determine the metallothionein and total thiols content in larvae
[...] Read more.
Among wide spectrum of biomolecules induced by various stress factors low molecular mass protein called metallothionein (MT) is suitable for assessment of the heavy metal environmental pollution. The aim of this work was to determine the metallothionein and total thiols content in larvae of freshwater midges (Chironomus riparius) sampled from laboratory exposure to cadmium(II) ions and from field studies using differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. Unique electrochemical instrument, stationary electrochemical analyser Autolab coupled with autosampler, was utilized for the analysis of the samples. The detection limit for MT was evaluated as 5 nM. The larvae exposed to two doses (50 ng/g or 50 μg/g) of cadmium(II) ions for fifteen days under laboratory controlled conditions were at the end of the exposure killed, homogenized and analysed. MT content in control samples was 1.2 μM, in larvae exposed to 50 ng Cd/g it was 2.0 μM and in larvae exposed to 50 μg Cd/g 2.9 μM. Moreover at field study chironomid larvae as well as sediment samples have been collected from eight field sites with different levels of pollution by heavy. The metals content (chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and lead) in the sediment and or MT content in the chironomid larvae were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or Brdicka reaction, respectively. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Mercury Distribution Between Liver and Muscle – A Biomonitoring of Fish from Lightly and Heavily Contaminated Localities
Sensors 2008, 8(7), 4095-4109; doi:10.3390/s8074095
Received: 19 January 2008 / Revised: 6 July 2008 / Accepted: 6 July 2008 / Published: 10 July 2008
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tissue samples from 1,117 fish of 25 species were collected from 1991 through 1996 at 13 locations along the River Elbe. The principal indicator species were perch (Perca fluviatilis) (n=118), chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) (n=113) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) (n=138). Mercury (Hg) concentrations
[...] Read more.
Tissue samples from 1,117 fish of 25 species were collected from 1991 through 1996 at 13 locations along the River Elbe. The principal indicator species were perch (Perca fluviatilis) (n=118), chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) (n=113) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) (n=138). Mercury (Hg) concentrations in muscle and liver were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The liver/muscle index in three indicator species from heavily contaminated and lightly contaminated localities were significantly different. In fish from heavily contaminated localities, Hg was deposited preferentially in the liver (the depository for inorganic and organic forms of Hg), while in lightly contaminated areas, it was deposited preferentially in muscle. Full article
Open AccessArticle Laurate Biosensors Image Brain Neurotransmitters In Vivo: Can an Antihypertensive Medication Alter Psychostimulant Behavior?
Sensors 2008, 8(7), 4033-4061; doi:10.3390/s8074033
Received: 29 May 2008 / Revised: 30 June 2008 / Accepted: 2 July 2008 / Published: 4 July 2008
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (540 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neuromolecular Imaging (NMI) with novel biosensors enables the selective detection of neurotransmitters in vivo within seconds, on line and in real time. Biosensors remain in place for continuing studies over a period of months. This biotechnological advance is based on conventional electrochemistry; the
[...] Read more.
Neuromolecular Imaging (NMI) with novel biosensors enables the selective detection of neurotransmitters in vivo within seconds, on line and in real time. Biosensors remain in place for continuing studies over a period of months. This biotechnological advance is based on conventional electrochemistry; the biosensors detect neurotransmitters by electron transfer. Simply stated, biosensors adsorb electrons from each neurotransmitter at specific oxidation potentials; the current derived from electron transfer is proportional to neurotransmitter concentration. Selective electron transfer properties of these biosensors permit the imaging of neurotransmitters, metabolites and precursors. The novel BRODERICK PROBE® biosensors we have developed, differ in formulation and detection capabilities from biosensors/electrodes used in conventional electrochemistry/ voltammetry. In these studies, NMI, specifically, the BRODERICK PROBE® laurate biosensor images neurotransmitter signals within mesolimbic neuronal terminals, nucleus accumbens (NAc); dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), homovanillic acid (HVA) and Ltryptophan (L-TP) are selectively imaged. Simultaneously, we use infrared photobeams to monitor open-field movement behaviors on line with NMI in the same animal subjects. The goals are to investigate integrated neurochemical and behavioral effects of cocaine and caffeine alone and co-administered and further, to use ketanserin to decipher receptor profiles for these psychostimulants, alone and co-administered. The rationale for selecting this medication is: ketanserin (a) is an antihypertensive and cocaine and caffeine produce hypertension and (b) acts at 5-HT2A/2C receptors, prevalent in NAc and implicated in hypertension and cocaine addiction. Key findings are: (a) the moderate dose of caffeine simultaneously potentiates cocaine's neurochemical and behavioral responses. (b) ketanserin simultaneously inhibits cocaine-increased DA and 5-HT release in NAc and open-field behaviors and (c) ketanserin inhibits 5-HT release in NAc and open-field behaviors produced by caffeine, but, surprisingly, acts to increase DA release in NAc. Importantly, the latter effect may be a possible adverse effect of the moderate dose of caffeine in hypertensive patients. Thus, an antihypertensive medication is shown here to play a role in inhibiting brain reward possibly via antihypertensive mechanisms at DA and 5-HT receptor subtypes within DA motor neurons. An explanatory note for the results obtained, is the role likely played by the G Protein Receptor Complex (GPRC) family of proteins. Empirical evidence shows that GPRC dimers, heteromers and heterotrimers may cause cross-talk between distinct signalling cascade pathways in the actions of cocaine and caffeine. Ligand-directed functional selectivity, particularly for ketanserin, in addition to GPRCs, may also cause differential responses. The results promise new therapeutic strategies for drug addiction, brain reward and cardiovascular medicine. Full article
Open AccessArticle Electrochemical Determination of Low Molecular Mass Thiols Content in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) Cultivated in the Presence of Various Sulphur Forms and Infected by Late Blight (Phytophora infestans)
Sensors 2008, 8(5), 3165-3182; doi:10.3390/s8053165
Received: 29 April 2008 / Accepted: 14 May 2008 / Published: 15 May 2008
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present paper potato plants were cultivated in the presence of ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur supplementation into the soil to reveal the effects of different sulphur forms on content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur, and yield of tubers.
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In the present paper potato plants were cultivated in the presence of ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur supplementation into the soil to reveal the effects of different sulphur forms on content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur, and yield of tubers. During the investigation of the influence of different sulphur forms on yield of potato tubers we did not observe significant changes. Average weight of tubers of control plants per one experimental pot was 355 g. Application of sulphur in both forms resulted in moderate potato tubers weight reduction per one experimental pot compared to control group; average value ranged from 320 to 350 g per one experimental pot. Further we treated the plants with two different supplementation of sulphur with cadmium(II) ions (4 mg of cadmium(II) acetate per kilogram of the soil). The significantly lowest cadmium content (p < 0.05) was determined in tissues of plants treated with the highest dosage of elemental sulphur (0.64 mg Cd/kg) compared to control plants (0.82 mg Cd/kg). We also aimed our attention on the cadmium content in proteins, lipids or soluble carbohydrates and ash. Application of sulphate as well as elemental sulphur resulted in significant cadmium content reduction in lipid fraction compared to control plants. In addition to this we quantified content of low molecular mass thiols in potatoes tissues. To determine the thiols content we employed differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. After twelve days of the treatment enhancing of thiols level was observed in all experimental groups regardless to applied sulphur form and its concentration. Finally we evaluated the effect of sulphur supplementation on Phytophora infestans infection of potato plants. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessment of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticide Residues in Cigarette Tobacco with a Novel Cell Biosensor
Sensors 2008, 8(4), 2818-2832; doi:10.3390/s8042818
Received: 29 January 2008 / Accepted: 22 April 2008 / Published: 23 April 2008
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The conventional analysis of pesticide residues in analytical commodities, such as tobacco and tobacco products is a labor intensive procedure, since it is necessary to cover a wide range of different chemicals, using a single procedure. Standard analysis methods include extensive sample pretreatment
[...] Read more.
The conventional analysis of pesticide residues in analytical commodities, such as tobacco and tobacco products is a labor intensive procedure, since it is necessary to cover a wide range of different chemicals, using a single procedure. Standard analysis methods include extensive sample pretreatment (with solvent extraction and partitioning phases) and determination by GC and HPLC to achieve the necessary selectivity and sensitivity for the different classes of compounds under detection. As a consequence, current methods of analysis provide a limited sample capacity. In the present study, we report on the development of a novel cell biosensor for detecting organophosphate and carbamate pesticide residues in tobacco. The sensor is based on neuroblastoma N2a cells and the measurement of changes of the cell membrane potential, according to the working principle of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA). The presence of pesticide residues is detected by the degree of inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE). The sensor instantly responded to both the organophoshate pesticide chlorpyriphos and the carbamate carbaryl in a concentration-dependent pattern, being able to detect one part per billion (1 ppb). Additionally, tobacco leaf samples (in blended dry form) were analyzed with both the novel biosensor and conventional methods, according to a double-blind protocol. Pesticide residues in tobacco samples caused a considerable cell membrane hyperpolarization to neuroblastoma cells immobilized in the sensor, as indicated by the increase of the negative sensor potential, which was clearly distinguishable from the sensor’s response against pesticide-free control samples. The observed response was quite reproducible, with an average variation of +5,6%. Fluorescence microscopy observations showed that treatment of the cells with either chlorpyrifos or carbaryl was associated with increased [Ca2+]cyt . The novel biosensor offers fresh perspectives for ultra-rapid, sensitive and low-cost monitoring of pesticide residues in tobacco as well as other food and agricultural commodities. Full article
Open AccessArticle Biomarkers of Contaminant Exposure in Chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) – Biomonitoring of Major Rivers in the Czech Republic
Sensors 2008, 8(4), 2589-2603; doi:10.3390/s8042589
Received: 31 March 2008 / Accepted: 10 April 2008 / Published: 11 April 2008
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (625 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biochemical analysis of organisms to assess exposure to environmental contaminants is of great potential use. Biochemical markers, specifically liver enzymes of the first and the second phase of xenobiotic transformation - cytochrome P450 (CYP 450), ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and tripeptide reduced glutathione
[...] Read more.
Biochemical analysis of organisms to assess exposure to environmental contaminants is of great potential use. Biochemical markers, specifically liver enzymes of the first and the second phase of xenobiotic transformation - cytochrome P450 (CYP 450), ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and tripeptide reduced glutathione (GSH) - were used to assess contamination of the aquatic environment at 12 locations near the mouths of major rivers in the Czech Republic. These rivers were the Lužnice, Otava, Sázava, Berounka, Vltava, Labe, Ohře, Svratka, Dyje, Morava and Odra. The indicator species selected was the Chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.). The highest levels of CYP 450 and EROD catalytic activity were found in livers of fish from the Labe (Obříství) (0.32±0.10 nmol mg-1 protein and 1061.38±545.51 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, respectively). The highest levels of GST catalytic activity and GSH content were found in fish from the Otava (35.39±13.35 nmol min-1 mg-1 protein and 4.29±2.10 nmol GSH mg-1 protein, respectively). They were compared with levels of specific inductors of these biochemical markers in muscle. The results confirmed contamination of some river locations (Labe Obříství, Svratka). Full article
Open AccessArticle An Electrochemical Detection of Metallothioneins at the Zeptomole Level in Nanolitre Volumes
Sensors 2008, 8(4), 2293-2305; doi:10.3390/s8042293
Received: 15 March 2008 / Accepted: 26 March 2008 / Published: 1 April 2008
Cited by 66 | PDF Full-text (187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An Electrochemical Detection of Metallothioneins at the Zeptomole Level in Nanolitre VolumesWe report on improvement of the adsorptive transfer stripping technique (AdTS) coupled with the differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction to determine a thiol-protein. The current technique has been unable to generate reproducible
[...] Read more.
An Electrochemical Detection of Metallothioneins at the Zeptomole Level in Nanolitre VolumesWe report on improvement of the adsorptive transfer stripping technique (AdTS) coupled with the differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction to determine a thiol-protein. The current technique has been unable to generate reproducible results when analyzing very low sample volumes (nanolitres). This obstacle can be overcome technically by modifying the current transfer technique including cooling step of the adsorbed analyte. We tested the technique on determination of a promising tumour disease marker protein called metallothionein (MT). The detection limit (3 S/N) of MT was evaluated as 500 zeptomoles per 500 nL (1 pM) and the quantification limit (10 S/N) as 1,500 zeptomoles per 500 nL (3 pM). Further, the improved AdTS technique was utilized to analyze blood serum samples from patients with breast cancer. Based on the results obtained it can be concluded that the improved technique can be used to detect a thiolprotein in very low sample volumes and can also prevent interferences during the washing and transferring step. Full article
Open AccessArticle Application of DNA Hybridization Biosensor as a Screening Method for the Detection of Genetically Modified Food Components
Sensors 2008, 8(4), 2118-2135; doi:10.3390/s8042118
Received: 29 January 2008 / Accepted: 20 March 2008 / Published: 27 March 2008
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (125 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An electrochemical biosensor for the detection of genetically modified food components is presented. The biosensor was based on 21-mer single-stranded oligonucleotide (ssDNA probe) specific to either 35S promoter or nos terminator, which are frequently present in transgenic DNA cassettes. ssDNA probe was covalently
[...] Read more.
An electrochemical biosensor for the detection of genetically modified food components is presented. The biosensor was based on 21-mer single-stranded oligonucleotide (ssDNA probe) specific to either 35S promoter or nos terminator, which are frequently present in transgenic DNA cassettes. ssDNA probe was covalently attached by 5’-phosphate end to amino group of cysteamine self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on gold electrode surface with the use of activating reagents – water soluble 1-ethyl-3(3’- dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxy-sulfosuccinimide (NHS). The hybridization reaction on the electrode surface was detected via methylene blue (MB) presenting higher affinity to ssDNA probe than to DNA duplex. The electrode modification procedure was optimized using 19-mer oligoG and oligoC nucleotides. The biosensor enabled distinction between DNA samples isolated from soybean RoundupReady® (RR soybean) and non-genetically modified soybean. The frequent introduction of investigated DNA sequences in other genetically modified organisms (GMOs) give a broad perspectives for analytical application of the biosensor. Full article
Open AccessArticle Electrochemical Determination of Trace Sudan I Contamination in Chili Powder at Carbon Nanotube Modified Electrodes
Sensors 2008, 8(3), 1890-1900; doi:10.3390/s8031890
Received: 23 January 2008 / Accepted: 20 February 2008 / Published: 17 March 2008
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have developed a simple, convenient and inexpensive voltammetric method for determining trace Sudan I contamination in chili powder, based on the catalyzed electrochemical reduction of Sudan I at the carbon nanotube modified electrode. Under optimized conditions, the method exhibited acceptable analytical performance
[...] Read more.
We have developed a simple, convenient and inexpensive voltammetric method for determining trace Sudan I contamination in chili powder, based on the catalyzed electrochemical reduction of Sudan I at the carbon nanotube modified electrode. Under optimized conditions, the method exhibited acceptable analytical performance in terms of linearity (over the concentration range 6.0×10–7 to 7.5×10–5 M, r = 0.9967), detection limit (2.0×10–7 M) and reproducibility (RSD = 4.6%, n=10, for 2.0×10–5 M Sudan I). Full article
Open AccessArticle Amperometric Low-Potential Detection of Malic Acid Using Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Based Electrodes
Sensors 2008, 8(3), 1497-1507; doi:10.3390/s8031497
Received: 4 February 2008 / Accepted: 21 February 2008 / Published: 3 March 2008
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The electrocatalytical property of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT)modified electrode toward NADH detection was explored by cyclic voltammetry andamperometry techniques. The experimental results show that SWNT decrease theovervoltage required for oxidation of NADH (to 300 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) and this propertymake them suitable for
[...] Read more.
The electrocatalytical property of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT)modified electrode toward NADH detection was explored by cyclic voltammetry andamperometry techniques. The experimental results show that SWNT decrease theovervoltage required for oxidation of NADH (to 300 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) and this propertymake them suitable for dehydrogenases based biosensors. The behavior of the SWNTmodified biosensor for L-malic acid was studied as an example for dehydrogenasesbiosensor. The amperometric measurements indicate that malate dehydrogenase (MDH)can be strongly adsorbed on the surface of the SWNT-modified electrode to form anapproximate monolayer film. Enzyme immobilization in Nafion membrane can increasethe biosensor stability. A linear calibration curve was obtained for L-malic acidconcentrations between 0.2 and 1mM. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Application of DNA-Biosensors and Differential Scanning Calorimetry to the Study of the DNA-Binding Agent Berenil
Sensors 2008, 8(3), 1519-1538; doi:10.3390/s8031519
Received: 29 January 2008 / Accepted: 14 February 2008 / Published: 3 March 2008
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (241 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The in situ DNA-damaging capacity of berenil (1) has been investigated usingan electrochemical approach employing double stranded (ds) DNA-modified glassy carbonelectrode biosensors. Electrochemical voltammetric sensing of damage caused by 1 todsDNA was monitored by the appearance of peaks diagnostic of the oxidation of
[...] Read more.
The in situ DNA-damaging capacity of berenil (1) has been investigated usingan electrochemical approach employing double stranded (ds) DNA-modified glassy carbonelectrode biosensors. Electrochemical voltammetric sensing of damage caused by 1 todsDNA was monitored by the appearance of peaks diagnostic of the oxidation of guanineand adenine. When 1 was incorporated directly onto the biosensor surface, DNA damagecould be observed at concentrations of additive as low as 10 μM. In contrast, when thedsDNA-modified biosensor was exposed to 1, in acetate buffer solution, the method wasmuch less sensitive and DNA damage could be detected only in the presence of 100 μMberenil. When mixed solutions of 1 and single stranded (ss) DNA, polyguanylic acid orpolyadenylic acid were submitted to voltammetric study, the oxidation signals of therespective bases decreased in a concentration-dependent manner and the major variation ofthe adenine current peak indicated preferential binding of 1 to adenine. The electrochemical results were in close agreement with those deriving from a differentialscanning calorimetric study of the DNA-berenil complex. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assembling Amperometric Biosensors for Clinical Diagnostics
Sensors 2008, 8(3), 1366-1399; doi:10.3390/s8031366
Received: 1 February 2008 / Accepted: 14 February 2008 / Published: 27 February 2008
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Clinical diagnosis and disease prevention routinely require the assessment ofspecies determined by chemical analysis. Biosensor technology offers several benefits overconventional diagnostic analysis. They include simplicity of use, specificity for the targetanalyte, speed to arise to a result, capability for continuous monitoring and multiplexing,together
[...] Read more.
Clinical diagnosis and disease prevention routinely require the assessment ofspecies determined by chemical analysis. Biosensor technology offers several benefits overconventional diagnostic analysis. They include simplicity of use, specificity for the targetanalyte, speed to arise to a result, capability for continuous monitoring and multiplexing,together with the potentiality of coupling to low-cost, portable instrumentation. This workfocuses on the basic lines of decisions when designing electron-transfer-based biosensorsfor clinical analysis, with emphasis on the strategies currently used to improve the deviceperformance, the present status of amperometric electrodes for biomedicine, and the trendsand challenges envisaged for the near future. Full article
Open AccessArticle Construction of a nrdA::luxCDABE Fusion and Its Use in Escherichia coli as a DNA Damage Biosensor
Sensors 2008, 8(2), 1297-1307; doi:10.3390/s8021297
Received: 31 January 2008 / Accepted: 21 February 2008 / Published: 22 February 2008
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (388 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The promoter of nrdA gene which is related with DNA synthesis was used to construct a DNA damage sensitive biosensor. A recombinant bioluminescent E. coli strain, BBTNrdA, harboring a plasmid with the nrdA promoter fused to the luxCDABE operon, was successfully constructed. Its
[...] Read more.
The promoter of nrdA gene which is related with DNA synthesis was used to construct a DNA damage sensitive biosensor. A recombinant bioluminescent E. coli strain, BBTNrdA, harboring a plasmid with the nrdA promoter fused to the luxCDABE operon, was successfully constructed. Its response to various chemicals including genotoxic chemicals substantiates it as a DNA damage biosensor. In characterization, three different classes of toxicants were used: DNA damaging chemicals, oxidative stress chemicals, and phenolics. BBTNrdA only responded strongly to DNA damaging chemicals, such as nalidixic acid (NDA), mitomycin C (MMC), 1-methyl-1-nitroso-N-methylguanidine (MNNG), and 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide (4-NQO). In contrast, there were no responses from the oxidative stress chemicals and phenolics, except from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) which is known to cause DNA damage indirectly. Therefore, the results of the study demonstrate that BBTNrdA can be used as a DNA damage biosensor. Full article
Open AccessArticle Integrated Electrochemical Analysis System with Microfluidic and Sensing Functions
Sensors 2008, 8(2), 1111-1127; doi:10.3390/s8021111
Received: 17 January 2008 / Accepted: 18 February 2008 / Published: 21 February 2008
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1342 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An integrated device that carries out the timely transport of solutions andconducts electroanalysis was constructed. The transport of solutions was based oncapillary action in overall hydrophilic flow channels and control by valves that operateon the basis of electrowetting. Electrochemical sensors including glucose, lactate,glutamic
[...] Read more.
An integrated device that carries out the timely transport of solutions andconducts electroanalysis was constructed. The transport of solutions was based oncapillary action in overall hydrophilic flow channels and control by valves that operateon the basis of electrowetting. Electrochemical sensors including glucose, lactate,glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), pH,ammonia, urea, and creatinine were integrated. An air gap structure was used for theammonia, urea, and creatinine sensors to realize a rapid response. To enhance thetransport of ammonia that existed or was produced by the enzymatic reactions, the pHof the solution was elevated by mixing it with a NaOH solution using a valve based onelectrowetting. The sensors for GOT and GPT used a freeze-dried substrate matrix torealize rapid mixing. The sample solution was transported to required sensing sites atdesired times. The integrated sensors showed distinct responses when a sample solutionreached the respective sensing sites. Linear relationships were observed between theoutput signals and the concentration or the logarithm of the concentration of theanalytes. An interferent, L-ascorbic acid, could be eliminated electrochemically in thesample injection port. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dependence of Impedance of Embedded Single Cells on Cellular Behaviour
Sensors 2008, 8(2), 1198-1211; doi:10.3390/s8021198
Received: 31 January 2008 / Accepted: 20 February 2007 / Published: 21 February 2008
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1431 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Non-invasive single cell analyses are increasingly required for the medicaldiagnostics of test substances or the development of drugs and therapies on the single celllevel. For the non-invasive characterisation of cells, impedance spectroscopy whichprovides the frequency dependent electrical properties has been used. Recently,microfludic systems
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Non-invasive single cell analyses are increasingly required for the medicaldiagnostics of test substances or the development of drugs and therapies on the single celllevel. For the non-invasive characterisation of cells, impedance spectroscopy whichprovides the frequency dependent electrical properties has been used. Recently,microfludic systems have been investigated to manipulate the single cells and tocharacterise the electrical properties of embedded cells. In this article, the impedance ofpartially embedded single cells dependent on the cellular behaviour was investigated byusing the microcapillary. An analytical equation was derived to relate the impedance ofembedded cells with respect to the morphological and physiological change ofextracellular interface. The capillary system with impedance measurement showed afeasibility to monitor the impedance change of embedded single cells caused bymorphological and physiological change of cell during the addition of DMSO. By fittingthe derived equation to the measured impedance of cell embedded at different negativepressure levels, it was able to extrapolate the equivalent gap and gap conductivity betweenthe cell and capillary wall representing the cellular behaviour. Full article
Open AccessArticle Influence of Cadmium(II) Ions and Brewery Sludge on Metallothionein Level in Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) – Bio- transforming of Toxic Wastes
Sensors 2008, 8(2), 1039-1047; doi:10.3390/s8021039
Received: 31 January 2008 / Accepted: 14 February 2008 / Published: 19 February 2008
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metallothioneins belong to a group of intracellular, high molecular andcysteine-rich proteins whose content in an organism increase with increasing concentrationof a heavy metal. The aim of this work was to apply the electrochemical analysis for theanalysis of metallothioneins in earthworms exposed to cadmium
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Metallothioneins belong to a group of intracellular, high molecular andcysteine-rich proteins whose content in an organism increase with increasing concentrationof a heavy metal. The aim of this work was to apply the electrochemical analysis for theanalysis of metallothioneins in earthworms exposed to cadmium ions and brewery sludge.Here we utilized adsorptive transfer technique coupled with differential pulse voltammetryBrdicka reaction to determine metallothionein in different biological samples. By meansthis very sensitive technique it was possible to analyze metallothionein in concentrationsbelow 1 μmol.l-1 with the standard deviation of 4-5%. We found out that the average MTlevel in the non-treated earthworms oscillated between 19 and 48 μmol.l-1. When weanalysed samples of earthworms treated by cadmium, we observed that the MT contentincreased with the exposition length and increase dose of cadmium ions. Finally, weattempted to study and compare the toxicity of the raw sludge and its leach by using ofearthworms. The raw brewery sludge caused the death of the earthworms quickly.Earthworms held in the presence of leach from brewery sludge increased their weight of147 % of their original weight because they ingested the nutrients from the sludge. Themetallothionein level changes markedly with increasing time of exposition and applieddose of toxic compound. It clearly follows from the obtained results that the MT synthesisis insufficient in the first hours of the exposition and increases after more than 24 h. Full article
Open AccessArticle Study of Copper and Purine-Copper Complexes on Modified Carbon Electrodes by Cyclic and Elimination Voltammetry
Sensors 2008, 8(1), 429-444; doi:10.3390/s8010429
Received: 30 December 2007 / Accepted: 15 January 2008 / Published: 24 January 2008
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (515 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using a paraffin impregnated graphite electrode (PIGE) and mercury-modifiedpyrolytic graphite electrode with basal orientation (Hg-PGEb) copper(II) and Cu(II)-DNApurine base solutions have been studied by cyclic (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry(LSV) in connection with elimination voltammetry with linear scan (EVLS). In chlorideand bromide solutions
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Using a paraffin impregnated graphite electrode (PIGE) and mercury-modifiedpyrolytic graphite electrode with basal orientation (Hg-PGEb) copper(II) and Cu(II)-DNApurine base solutions have been studied by cyclic (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry(LSV) in connection with elimination voltammetry with linear scan (EVLS). In chlorideand bromide solutions (pH 6), the redox process of Cu(II) proceeded on PIGE with twocathodic and two anodic potentially separated signals. According to the eliminationfunction E4, the first cathodic peak corresponds to the reduction Cu(II) e- → Cu(I) withthe possibility of fast disproportionation 2Cu(I) → Cu(II) Cu(0). The E4 of the secondcathodic peak signalized an electrode process controlled by a surface reaction. Theelectrode system of Cu(II) on Hg-PGEb in borate buffer (pH 9.2) was characterized by onecathodic and one anodic peak. Anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) on PIGE and cathodicstripping voltammetry (CSV) on Hg-PGEb were carried out at potentials where thereduction of copper ions took place and Cu(I)-purine complexes were formed. By usingASV and CSV in combination with EVLS, the sensitivity of Cu(I)-purine complexdetection was enhanced relative to either ASV or CSV alone, resulting in higher peakcurrents of more than one order of magnitude. The statistical treatment of CE data wasused to determine the reproducibility of measurements. Our results show that EVLS inconnection with the stripping procedure is useful for both qualitative and quantitativemicroanalysis of purine derivatives and can also reveal details of studied electrodeprocesses. Full article
Open AccessArticle Multi-instrumental Analysis of Tissues of Sunflower Plants Treated with Silver(I) Ions – Plants as Bioindicators of Environmental Pollution
Sensors 2008, 8(1), 445-463; doi:10.3390/s8010445
Received: 26 December 2007 / Accepted: 15 January 2008 / Published: 24 January 2008
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (1301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this work is to investigate sunflower plants response on stressinduced by silver(I) ions. The sunflower plants were exposed to silver(I) ions (0, 0.1, 0.5,and 1 mM) for 96 h. Primarily we aimed our attention to observation of basic physiologicalparameters. We
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The aim of this work is to investigate sunflower plants response on stressinduced by silver(I) ions. The sunflower plants were exposed to silver(I) ions (0, 0.1, 0.5,and 1 mM) for 96 h. Primarily we aimed our attention to observation of basic physiologicalparameters. We found that the treated plants embodied growth depression, coloured changes and lack root hairs. Using of autofluorescence of anatomical structures, such aslignified cell walls, it was possible to determine the changes of important shoot and rootstructures, mainly vascular bungles and development of secondary thickening. Thedifferences in vascular bundles organisation, parenchymatic pith development in the rootcentre and the reduction of phloem part of vascular bundles were well observable.Moreover with increasing silver(I) ions concentration the vitality of rhizodermal cellsdeclined; rhizodermal cells early necrosed and were replaced by the cells of exodermis.Further we employed laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for determination of spatialdistribution of silver(I) ions in tissues of the treated plants. The Ag is accumulated mainlyin near-root part of the sample. Moreover basic biochemical indicators of environmentalstress were investigated. The total content of proteins expressively decreased withincreasing silver(I) ions dose and the time of the treatment. As we compare the resultsobtained by protein analysis – the total protein contents in shoot as well as root parts – wecan assume on the transport of the proteins from the roots to shoots. This phenomenon canbe related with the cascade of processes connecting with photosynthesis. The secondbiochemical parameter, which we investigated, was urease activity. If we compared theactivity in treated plants with control, we found out that presence of silver(I) ions markedlyenhanced the activity of urease at all applied doses of this toxic metal. Finally we studiedthe effect of silver(I) ions on activity of urease in in vitro conditions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Lactoferrin Isolation Using Monolithic Column Coupled with Spectrometric or Micro-Amperometric Detector
Sensors 2008, 8(1), 464-487; doi:10.3390/s8010464
Received: 27 December 2007 / Accepted: 15 January 2008 / Published: 24 January 2008
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (592 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lactoferrin is a multifunctional protein with antimicrobial activity and others tohealth beneficial properties. The main aim of this work was to propose easy to usetechnique for lactoferrin isolation from cow colostrum samples. Primarily we utilizedsodium dodecyl sulphate – polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for isolation
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Lactoferrin is a multifunctional protein with antimicrobial activity and others tohealth beneficial properties. The main aim of this work was to propose easy to usetechnique for lactoferrin isolation from cow colostrum samples. Primarily we utilizedsodium dodecyl sulphate – polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for isolation of lactoferrinfrom the real samples. Moreover we tested automated microfluidic Experionelectrophoresis system to isolate lactoferrin from the collostrum sample. The welldeveloped signal of lactoferrin was determined with detection limit (3 S/N) of 20 ng/ml. Inspite of the fact that Experion is faster than SDS-PAGE both separation techniques cannotbe used in routine analysis. Therefore we have tested third separation technique, ionexchange chromatography, using monolithic column coupled with UV-VIS detector (LCUV-VIS). We optimized wave length (280 nm), ionic strength of the elution solution (1.5M NaCl) and flow rate of the retention and elution solutions (0.25 ml/min and 0.75 ml/min.respectively). Under the optimal conditions the detection limit was estimated as 0.1 μg/mlof lactoferrin measured. Using LC-UV-VIS we determined that lactoferrin concentrationvaried from 0.5 g/l to 1.1 g/l in cow colostrums collected in the certain time interval up to 72 hours after birth. Further we focused on miniaturization of detection device. We testedamperometric detection at carbon electrode. The results encouraged us to attempt tominiaturise whole detection system and to test it on analysis of real samples of humanfaeces, because lactoferrin level in faeces is closely associated with the inflammations ofintestine mucous membrane. For the purpose of miniaturization we employed thetechnology of printed electrodes. The detection limit of lactoferrin was estimated as 10μg/ml measured by the screen-printed electrodes fabricated by us. The fabricatedelectrodes were compared with commercially available ones. It follows from the obtainedresults that the responses measured by commercial electrodes are app. ten times highercompared with those measured by the electrodes fabricated by us. This phenomenonrelates with smaller working electrode surface area of the electrodes fabricated by us(about 50 %) compared to the commercial ones. The screen-printed electrodes fabricatedby us were utilized for determination of lactoferrin faeces. Regarding to fact that sample offaeces was obtained from young and healthy man the amount of lactoferrin in sample wasunder the limit of detection of this method. Full article
Open AccessArticle Enzyme-Linked Electrochemical Detection of PCR-Amplified Nucleotide Sequences Using Disposable Screen-Printed Sensors. Applications in Gene Expression Monitoring
Sensors 2008, 8(1), 193-210; doi:10.3390/s8010193
Received: 28 December 2007 / Accepted: 7 January 2008 / Published: 21 January 2008
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrochemical enzyme-linked techniques for sequence-specific DNA sensingare presented. These techniques are based on attachment of streptavidin-alkalinephosphatase conjugate to biotin tags tethered to DNA immobilized at the surface ofdisposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE), followed by production andelectrochemical determination of an electroactive indicator, 1-naphthol. Via
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Electrochemical enzyme-linked techniques for sequence-specific DNA sensingare presented. These techniques are based on attachment of streptavidin-alkalinephosphatase conjugate to biotin tags tethered to DNA immobilized at the surface ofdisposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE), followed by production andelectrochemical determination of an electroactive indicator, 1-naphthol. Via hybridizationof SPCE surface-confined target DNAs with end-biotinylated probes, highly specificdiscrimination between complementary and non-complementary nucleotide sequences wasachieved. The enzyme-linked DNA hybridization assay has been successfully applied inanalysis of PCR-amplified real genomic DNA sequences, as well as in monitoring of planttissue-specific gene expression. In addition, we present an alternative approach involvingsequence-specific incorporation of biotin-labeled nucleotides into DNA by primerextension. Introduction of multiple biotin tags per probe primer resulted in considerableenhancement of the signal intensity and improvement of the specificity of detection. Full article
Open AccessArticle Gold Nanoparticles With Special Shapes: Controlled Synthesis, Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering, and The Application in Biodetection
Sensors 2007, 7(12), 3299-3311; doi:10.3390/s7123299
Received: 12 November 2007 / Accepted: 12 December 2007 / Published: 14 December 2007
Cited by 71 | PDF Full-text (1409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Specially shaped gold nanoparticles have intrigued considerable attention becausethey usually possess high-sensitivity surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and thusresult in large advantages in trace biodetermination. In this article, starch-capped goldnanoparticles with hexagon and boot shapes were prepared through using a nontoxic andbiologically benign aqueous-phase
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Specially shaped gold nanoparticles have intrigued considerable attention becausethey usually possess high-sensitivity surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and thusresult in large advantages in trace biodetermination. In this article, starch-capped goldnanoparticles with hexagon and boot shapes were prepared through using a nontoxic andbiologically benign aqueous-phase synthetic route. Shape effects of gold nanoparticles onSERS properties were mainly investigated, and found that different-shaped goldnanoparticles possess different SERS properties. Especially, the boot-shaped nanoparticlescould induce more 100-fold SERS enhancements in sensitivity as compared with those fromgold nanospheres. The extremely strong SERS properties of gold nanoboots have beensuccessfully applied to the detection of avidin. The unique nanoboots with high-sensitivitySERS properties are also expected to find use in many other fields such as biolabel,bioassay, biodiagnosis, and even clinical diagnosis and therapy. Full article
Open AccessArticle Non-Destructive Evaluation of Historical Paper Based on pH Estimation from VOC Emissions
Sensors 2007, 7(12), 3136-3145; doi:10.3390/s7123136
Received: 12 November 2007 / Accepted: 4 December 2007 / Published: 5 December 2007
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (516 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from materials during degradationcan be a valuable source of information. In this work, the emissions of furfural and aceticacid from cellulose were studied using solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) incombination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two sampling techniques wereemployed: static headspace
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Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from materials during degradationcan be a valuable source of information. In this work, the emissions of furfural and aceticacid from cellulose were studied using solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) incombination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two sampling techniques wereemployed: static headspace sampling using SPME for 1 h at 40 oC after 18-h samplepreparation at 80 oC in a closed glass vial, and contact SPME in a stack of paper (or abook). While a number of VOCs are emitted from paper under conditions of natural oraccelerated degradation, two compounds were confirmed to be of particular diagnosticvalue: acetic acid and furfural. The emissions of furfural are shown to correlate with pH ofthe cellulosic environment. Since pH is one of the most important parameters regardingdurability of this material, the developed method could be used for non-destructiveevaluation of historical paper. Full article
Open AccessArticle Piezoelectric Biosensor for a Simple Serological Diagnosis of Tularemia in Infected European Brown Hares (Lepus europaeus)
Sensors 2007, 7(11), 2825-2834; doi:10.3390/s7112825
Received: 17 October 2007 / Accepted: 14 November 2007 / Published: 19 November 2007
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Piezoelectric biosensor was used for diagnosis of infection by Francisellatularensis subsp. holarctica in European brown hares. Two kinds of experiments wereperformed in this study. First, sera from experimentally infected European brown hares(Lepus europaeus) were assayed by piezoelectric biosensor and the seventh day postinfection
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Piezoelectric biosensor was used for diagnosis of infection by Francisellatularensis subsp. holarctica in European brown hares. Two kinds of experiments wereperformed in this study. First, sera from experimentally infected European brown hares(Lepus europaeus) were assayed by piezoelectric biosensor and the seventh day postinfection was found as the first one when statistically significant diagnosis of tularemia waspossible; all other sera collected from hares later than on day 7 following the infection werefound tularemia positive. Typing to classify the field strain of F. tularensis used for theexperimental infection was confirmed by proteome study. Second, sera from 35 Europeanbrown hare specimens sampled at hunting grounds and tested as tularemia positive by slowagglutination allowed diagnosis of tularemia by the piezoelectric biosensor. All these sera ofnaturally infected hares were found as tularemia positive, too. Efficacy of the piezoelectricbiosensor for the serological diagnosis of tularemia is discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Electrochemical Interrogation of Interactions between Surface-Confined DNA and Methylene Blue
Sensors 2007, 7(11), 2671-2680; doi:10.3390/s7112671
Received: 31 October 2007 / Accepted: 9 November 2007 / Published: 12 November 2007
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (642 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, we reported a systematic investigation on the interactions betweenmethylene blue (MB) and surface-confined DNA by using electrochemical methods. Wedemonstrated that the redox potential of MB and binding and dissociation kinetics of MB toDNA differed significantly for single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) and
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In this work, we reported a systematic investigation on the interactions betweenmethylene blue (MB) and surface-confined DNA by using electrochemical methods. Wedemonstrated that the redox potential of MB and binding and dissociation kinetics of MB toDNA differed significantly for single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) and double-stranded DNA(ds-DNA) immobilized on gold electrodes. This was possibly due to the different bindingmechanism between MB and ss- or ds-DNA. This work might provide useful informationfor developing MB-based sequence-specific electrochemical DNA sensors. Full article
Open AccessArticle Biochemical Markers for Assessing Aquatic Contamination
Sensors 2007, 7(11), 2599-2611; doi:10.3390/s7112599
Received: 18 September 2007 / Accepted: 1 November 2007 / Published: 2 November 2007
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (354 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biochemical markers, specifically enzymes of the first phase of xenobiotic transformation - cytochrome P450 and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) - were used to determine the quantities of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish muscle (PCB, HCB, HCH, OCS, DDT). Eight rivers were monitored (Orlice, Chrudimka,
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Biochemical markers, specifically enzymes of the first phase of xenobiotic transformation - cytochrome P450 and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) - were used to determine the quantities of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish muscle (PCB, HCB, HCH, OCS, DDT). Eight rivers were monitored (Orlice, Chrudimka, Cidlina, Jizera, Vltava, Ohře and Bílina; and the River Blanice was used as a control). The indicator species selected was the chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.). There were no significant differences in cytochrome P450 content between the locations monitored. The highest concentration of cytochrome P450 in fish liver was in the Vltava (0.241 nmol mg-1 protein), and the lowest was in the Orlice (0.120 nmol mg-1 protein). Analysis of EROD activity showed a significant difference between the Blanice and the Vltava (P< 0.05), and also between the Orlice and the Vltava (P< 0.01), the Orlice and the Bílina (P< 0.01), and the Orlice and the Ohře (P< 0.05). The highest EROD activity in fish liver was in the Vltava (576.4 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein), and the lowest was in the Orlice (63.05 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein). In individual locations, results of chemical monitoring and values of biochemical markers were compared. A significant correlation (P< 0.05) was found between biochemical markers and OCS, and PCB. Among the tributaries studied those that contaminated the Elbe most were the Vltava and the Bílina. These tributaries should not be considered the main sources of industrial contamination of the River Elbe, because the most important contamination sources were along the river Elbe itself. Full article
Open AccessArticle Utilizing of Square Wave Voltammetry to Detect Flavonoids in the Presence of Human Urine
Sensors 2007, 7(10), 2402-2418; doi:10.3390/s7102402
Received: 10 September 2007 / Accepted: 17 October 2007 / Published: 19 October 2007
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
About biological affecting of flavonoids on animal organisms is known less,thus we selected flavonoids, flavanones and flavones, and their glycosides, which wereexamined as potential inducers of cytochrome(s) P450 when administrated by gavages intoexperimental male rats. The study was focused on induction of CYP1A1,
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About biological affecting of flavonoids on animal organisms is known less,thus we selected flavonoids, flavanones and flavones, and their glycosides, which wereexamined as potential inducers of cytochrome(s) P450 when administrated by gavages intoexperimental male rats. The study was focused on induction of CYP1A1, the majorcytochrome P450 involved in carcinogen activation. The data obtained demonstrate thenecessity of taking into account not only ability of flavonoids to bind to Ah receptor(induction factor) but also to concentrate on their distribution and metabolism (includingcolon microflora) in the body. After that we examined certain flavonoids as potential inducers of cytochrome P450, we wanted to suggest and optimize suitable electrochemical technique for determination of selected flavonoids (quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, chrysin and diosmin) in body liquids. For these purposes, we selected square wave voltannetry using carbon paste electrode. Primarily we aimed on investigation of their basic electrochemical behaviour. After that we have optimized frequency, step potential and supporting electrolyte. Based on the results obtained, we selected the most suitable conditions for determination of the flavonoids as follows: frequency 180 Hz, step potential 1.95 mV/s and phosphate buffer of pH 7 as supporting electrolyte. Detection limits (3 S/N) of the flavonoids were from units to tens of nM except diosmin, where the limit were higher than μM. In addition, we attempted to suggest a sensor for analysis of flavonoids in urine. It clearly follows from the results obtained that flavonoids can be analysed in the presence of animal urine, because urine did not influence much the signals of flavonoids (recoveries of the signals were about 90 %). Full article
Open AccessArticle Shapes of Differential Pulse Voltammograms and Level of Metallothionein at Different Animal Species
Sensors 2007, 7(10), 2419-2429; doi:10.3390/s7102419
Received: 1 October 2007 / Accepted: 17 October 2007 / Published: 19 October 2007
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metallothioneins play a key role in maintaining homeostasis of essential metalsand in protecting of cells against metal toxicity as well as oxidative damaging. Exceptinghumans, blood levels of metallothionein have not yet been reported from any animalspecies. Blood plasma samples of 9 animal species
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Metallothioneins play a key role in maintaining homeostasis of essential metalsand in protecting of cells against metal toxicity as well as oxidative damaging. Exceptinghumans, blood levels of metallothionein have not yet been reported from any animalspecies. Blood plasma samples of 9 animal species were analysed by the adsorptive transferstripping technique to obtain species specific voltammograms. Quite distinct records wereobtained from the Takin (Budorcas taxicolor), while other interesting records were observedin samples from the European Bison (Bison bonasus bonasus) and the Red-eared Slider(Trachemys scripta elegans). To quantify metallothionein the catalytic peak Cat2 was used,well developed in the Domestic Fowl (Gallus gallus f. domestica) and showing a very lowsignal in the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus). The highest levels of metallothionein reachingover 20 μM were found in the Domestic Fowl. High levels of MT were also found in theBearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps) and the Grey Wolf (Canis lupus lupus). The lowestvalues of about 1-3 μM were determined in the Red-eared Slider, Takin and Red Deer. Employing a simple electrochemical detection it was possible to examine variation in blood metallothionein in different species of vertebrates. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Investigation of Glutathione-Platinum(II) Interactions by Means of the Flow Injection Analysis Using Glassy Carbon Electrode
Sensors 2007, 7(7), 1256-1270; doi:10.3390/s7071256
Received: 15 June 2007 / Accepted: 13 July 2007 / Published: 20 July 2007
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite very intensive research in the synthesising of new cytostatics, cisplatin isstill one of the most commonly used anticancer drugs. Therefore, an investigation ofinteractions of cisplatin with different biologically important amino acids, peptides andproteins is very topical. In the present paper, we utilized
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Despite very intensive research in the synthesising of new cytostatics, cisplatin isstill one of the most commonly used anticancer drugs. Therefore, an investigation ofinteractions of cisplatin with different biologically important amino acids, peptides andproteins is very topical. In the present paper, we utilized flow injection analysis coupledwith electrochemical detection to study and characterize the behaviour of various forms ofglutathione (reduced glutathione – GSH, oxidized glutathione – GSSG and S-nitrosoglutathione – GSNO). The optimized conditions were as follows: mobile phase consistedof acetate buffer (pH 3) with a flow rate of 1 mL min-1. Based on results obtained we chose850 mV as the optimal potential for detection of GSH and 1,100 mV as the optimalpotential for detection of GSSG and GSNO. The detection limits of GSH, GSSG andGSNO were 100 pg mL-1, 50 ng mL-1 and 300 pg mL-1, respectively. Further, the optimized technique was used for investigation of interactions between cisplatin and GSH. We were able to observe the interaction between GSH and cisplatin via decrease in the signal corresponding to glutathione. Moreover, we evaluated the formation of the complex by spectrometry. The spectrometric results obtained were in good agreement with electrochemical ones. Full article
Open AccessArticle Hazards of Secondary Bromadiolone Intoxications Evaluated using High-performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection
Sensors 2007, 7(7), 1271-1286; doi:10.3390/s7071271
Received: 28 June 2007 / Accepted: 18 July 2007 / Published: 20 July 2007
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (459 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study reported on the possibility of intoxications of non-target wild animalsassociated with use of bromadiolone as the active component of rodenticides withanticoagulation effects. A laboratory test was done with earthworms were exposed tobromadiolone-containing granules under the conditions specified in the modified OECD207
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This study reported on the possibility of intoxications of non-target wild animalsassociated with use of bromadiolone as the active component of rodenticides withanticoagulation effects. A laboratory test was done with earthworms were exposed tobromadiolone-containing granules under the conditions specified in the modified OECD207 guideline. No mortality of earthworms was observed during the fourteen days longexposure. When the earthworms from the above test became a part of the diet of commonvoles in the following experiment, no mortality of consumers was observed too. However,electrochemical analysis revealed higher levels of bromadiolone in tissues fromearthworms as well as common voles compared to control animals. There were determinedcomparable levels of bromadiolone in the liver tissue of common voles after primary(2.34±0.10 μg/g) and secondary (2.20±0.53 μg/g) intoxication. Therefore, the risk ofsecondary intoxication of small mammalian species feeding on bromadiolone-containing earthworms is the same as of primary intoxication through baited granules. Bromadiolone bio-accumulation in the food chain was monitored using the newly developed analytical procedure based on the use of a liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detector (HPLC-ED). The HPLC-ED method allowed to determine the levels of bromadiolone in biological samples and is therefore suitable for examining the environmental hazards of this substance. Full article
Open AccessArticle Spectrometric and Voltammetric Analysis of Urease – Nickel Nanoelectrode as an Electrochemical Sensor
Sensors 2007, 7(7), 1238-1255; doi:10.3390/s7071238
Received: 3 July 2007 / Accepted: 13 July 2007 / Published: 16 July 2007
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urease is the enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea into carbon dioxide andammonia. This enzyme is substrate-specific, which means that the enzyme catalyzes thehydrolysis of urea only. This feature is a basic diagnostic criterion used in thedetermination of many bacteria species. Most of
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Urease is the enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea into carbon dioxide andammonia. This enzyme is substrate-specific, which means that the enzyme catalyzes thehydrolysis of urea only. This feature is a basic diagnostic criterion used in thedetermination of many bacteria species. Most of the methods utilized for detection ofurease are based on analysis of its enzyme activity – the hydrolysis of urea. The aim of thiswork was to detect urease indirectly by spectrometric method and directly by voltammetricmethods. As spectrometric method we used is called indophenol assay. The sensitivity ofdetection itself is not sufficient to analyse the samples without pre-concentration steps.Therefore we utilized adsorptive transfer stripping technique coupled with differential pulse voltammetry to detect urease. The influence of accumulation time, pH of supporting electrolyte and concentration of urease on the enzyme peak height was investigated. Under the optimized experimental conditions (0.2 M acetate buffer pH 4.6 and accumulation time of 120 s) the detection limit of urease evaluated as 3 S/N was 200 ng/ml. The activity of urease enzyme depends on the presence of nickel. Thus the influence of nickel(II) ions on electrochemical response of the enzyme was studied. Based on the results obtained the interaction of nickel(II) ions and urease can be determined using electrochemical methods. Therefore we prepared Ni nanoelectrodes to measure urease. The Ni nanoelectrodes was analysed after the template dissolution by scanning electron microscopy. The results shown vertically aligned Ni nanopillars almost covered the electrode surface, whereas the defect places are minor and insignificant in comparison with total electrode surface. We were able to not only detect urease itself but also to distinguish its native and denatured form. Full article
Open AccessArticle Electroanalysis of Plant Thiols
Sensors 2007, 7(6), 932-959; doi:10.3390/s7060932
Received: 18 May 2007 / Accepted: 12 June 2007 / Published: 13 June 2007
Cited by 70 | PDF Full-text (595 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to unique physico-chemical properties of –SH moiety thiols comprise widegroup of biologically important compounds. A review devoted to biological functions ofglutathione and phytochelatins with literature survey of methods used to analysis of thesecompounds and their interactions with cadmium(II) ions and Murashige-Skoog medium
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Due to unique physico-chemical properties of –SH moiety thiols comprise widegroup of biologically important compounds. A review devoted to biological functions ofglutathione and phytochelatins with literature survey of methods used to analysis of thesecompounds and their interactions with cadmium(II) ions and Murashige-Skoog medium ispresented. For these purposes electrochemical techniques are used. Moreover, we revealedthe effect of three different cadmium concentrations (0, 10 and 100 μM) on cadmiumuptake and thiols content in maize plants during 192 hours long experiments usingdifferential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry to detect cadmium(II) ions and highperformance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection to determineglutathione. Cadmium concentration determined in tissues of the plants cultivated innutrient solution containing 10 μM Cd was very low up to 96 hours long exposition andthen the concentration of Cd markedly increased. On the contrary, the addition of 100 μMCd caused an immediate sharp increase in all maize plant parts to 96 hours Cd expositionbut subsequently the Cd concentration increased more slowly. A high performance liquidchromatography with electrochemical detection was used for glutathione determination intreated maize plants after 96 and 192 hours of treatment. The highest total content of glutathione per one plant was 6 μg (96 h, 10 μM Cd) in comparison with non-treated plant (control) where glutathione content was 1.5 μg. It can be concluded that electrochemical techniques have proved to be useful to analyse plant thiols. Full article
Open AccessArticle Multi-instrumental Investigation of Affecting of Early Somatic Embryos of Spruce by Cadmium(II) and Lead(II) Ions
Sensors 2007, 7(5), 743-759; doi:10.3390/s7050743
Received: 5 May 2007 / Accepted: 23 May 2007 / Published: 31 May 2007
Cited by 50 | PDF Full-text (537 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main aim of this work was to use multi-instrumental analytical apparatus toinvestigate the effects of treatment with cadmium(II) and/or lead(II) ions (50, 250 and 500μM) for twelve days on early somatic spruce embryos (ESEs). Primarily we used imageanalysis for estimation of growth
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The main aim of this work was to use multi-instrumental analytical apparatus toinvestigate the effects of treatment with cadmium(II) and/or lead(II) ions (50, 250 and 500μM) for twelve days on early somatic spruce embryos (ESEs). Primarily we used imageanalysis for estimation of growth and a fluorimetric sensor for enzymatic detection ofviability of the treated ESEs. It follows from the obtained results that Cd caused highertoxicity to ESEs than Pb. Besides this fundamental finding, we observed that ESEs grewand developed better in the presence of 500 μM of the metal ions than in the presence of250 μM. Based on the results obtained using nuclear magnetic resonance this phenomenonwas related to an increase of the area of ESE clusters by intensive uptake of water from thecultivation medium, due to dilution of the heavy metal concentration inside the cluster. Inaddition we studied the glutathione content in treated ESEs by the adsorptive transferstripping technique coupled with the differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. GSHcontents increased up to 148 ng/mg (clone 2/32) and 158 ng/mg (clone PE 14) after twelve day long treatment with Cd-EDTA ions. The GSH content was about 150 and 160 % higher in comparison with the ESEs treated with Pb-EDTA ions, respectively. The difference between GSH contents determined in ESEs treated with Pb-EDTA and Cd-EDTA ions correlates with the higher toxicity of cadmium(II) ions. Full article

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Open AccessReview Electrochemical Sensors for Clinic Analysis
Sensors 2008, 8(4), 2043-2081; doi:10.3390/s8042043
Received: 31 January 2008 / Accepted: 4 March 2008 / Published: 27 March 2008
Cited by 104 | PDF Full-text (367 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Demanded by modern medical diagnosis, advances in microfabrication technology have led to the development of fast, sensitive and selective electrochemical sensors for clinic analysis. This review addresses the principles behind electrochemical sensor design and fabrication, and introduces recent progress in the application of
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Demanded by modern medical diagnosis, advances in microfabrication technology have led to the development of fast, sensitive and selective electrochemical sensors for clinic analysis. This review addresses the principles behind electrochemical sensor design and fabrication, and introduces recent progress in the application of electrochemical sensors to analysis of clinical chemicals such as blood gases, electrolytes, metabolites, DNA and antibodies, including basic and applied research. Miniaturized commercial electrochemical biosensors will form the basis of inexpensive and easy to use devices for acquiring chemical information to bring sophisticated analytical capabilities to the non-specialist and general public alike in the future. Full article
Open AccessReview Sensitive Detection of Haloperidol and Hydroxyzine at Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes
Sensors 2008, 8(3), 1879-1889; doi:10.3390/s8031879
Received: 1 February 2008 / Accepted: 14 March 2008 / Published: 17 March 2008
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (88 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Haloperidol (i.e. HPD) and hydroxyzine (i.e. HXY), two effective and important tranquilizers with low redox activity, were found to generate an irreversible anodic peak at about +0.86 V (vs. SCE) or two anodic peaks at about +0.83 and +0.91 V in 0.05 M
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Haloperidol (i.e. HPD) and hydroxyzine (i.e. HXY), two effective and important tranquilizers with low redox activity, were found to generate an irreversible anodic peak at about +0.86 V (vs. SCE) or two anodic peaks at about +0.83 and +0.91 V in 0.05 M NaH2PO4-Na2HPO4 (pH=7.0) buffer solution with a multi-walled carbon nanotubes-modified glassy carbon electrode (i.e. MWNTs/GC), respectively. Their sensitive and quantitative measurement based on the first two anodic peaks was established under the optimum conditions. The anodic peak current was linear to HPD and HXY concentration from 1×10-7 to 2.5 ×10-5 M and 5×10-8 to 2.5 ×10-5 M, the detection limits obtained were 8×10-9 and 5×10-9 M, separately. The modified electrode exhibited some excellent characteristics including easy regeneration, high stability, good reproducibility and selectivity. The method proposed was successfully applied to the detection of HPD and HXY in drug tablets and proved to be reliable compared with ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The modified electrode was characterized by electrochemical methods. Full article
Open AccessReview Electrochemical Biosensors - Sensor Principles and Architectures
Sensors 2008, 8(3), 1400-1458; doi:10.3390/s80314000
Received: 23 January 2008 / Accepted: 28 January 2008 / Published: 7 March 2008
Cited by 359 | PDF Full-text (5931 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quantification of biological or biochemical processes are of utmost importance for medical, biological and biotechnological applications. However, converting the biological information to an easily processed electronic signal is challenging due to the complexity of connecting an electronic device directly to a biological environment.
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Quantification of biological or biochemical processes are of utmost importance for medical, biological and biotechnological applications. However, converting the biological information to an easily processed electronic signal is challenging due to the complexity of connecting an electronic device directly to a biological environment. Electrochemical biosensors provide an attractive means to analyze the content of a biological sample due to the direct conversion of a biological event to an electronic signal. Over the past decades several sensing concepts and related devices have been developed. In this review, the most common traditional techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry, impedance spectroscopy, and various field-effect transistor based methods are presented along with selected promising novel approaches, such as nanowire or magnetic nanoparticle-based biosensing. Additional measurement techniques, which have been shown useful in combination with electrochemical detection, are also summarized, such as the electrochemical versions of surface plasmon resonance, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, ellipsometry, quartz crystal microbalance, and scanning probe microscopy. The signal transduction and the general performance of electrochemical sensors are often determined by the surface architectures that connect the sensing element to the biological sample at the nanometer scale. The most common surface modification techniques, the various electrochemical transduction mechanisms, and the choice of the recognition receptor molecules all influence the ultimate sensitivity of the sensor. New nanotechnology-based approaches, such as the use of engineered ion-channels in lipid bilayers, the encapsulation of enzymes into vesicles, polymersomes, or polyelectrolyte capsules provide additional possibilities for signal amplification. In particular, this review highlights the importance of the precise control over the delicate interplay between surface nano-architectures, surface functionalization and the chosen sensor transducer principle, as well as the usefulness of complementary characterization tools to interpret and to optimize the sensor response. Full article
Open AccessReview A Review on the Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors Composed of Nanowires as Sensing Material
Sensors 2008, 8(1), 290-313; doi:10.3390/s8010290
Received: 29 December 2007 / Accepted: 14 January 2008 / Published: 21 January 2008
Cited by 185 | PDF Full-text (745 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development and application of nanowires for electrochemical sensors and biosensors are reviewed in this article. Next generation sensor platforms will require significant improvements in sensitivity, specificity and parallelism in order to meet the future needs in variety of fields. Sensors made of
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The development and application of nanowires for electrochemical sensors and biosensors are reviewed in this article. Next generation sensor platforms will require significant improvements in sensitivity, specificity and parallelism in order to meet the future needs in variety of fields. Sensors made of nanowires exploit some fundamental nanoscopic effect in order to meet these requirements. Nanowires are new materials, which have the characteristic of low weight with extraordinary mechanical, electrical, thermal and multifunctional properties. The advantages such as size scale, aspect ratio and other properties of nanowires are especially apparent in the use of electrical sensors such as electrochemical sensors and in the use of field-effect transistors. The preparation methods of nanowires and their properties are discussed along with their advantages towards electrochemical sensors and biosensors. Some key results from each article are summarized, relating the concept and mechanism behind each sensor, with experimental conditions as well as their behavior at different conditions. Full article
Open AccessReview Electroanalysis of NADH Using Conducting and Redox Active Polymer/Carbon Nanotubes Modified Electrodes-A Review
Sensors 2008, 8(2), 739-766; doi:10.3390/s8020739
Received: 31 December 2007 / Accepted: 30 January 2008 / Published: 6 January 2008
Cited by 81 | PDF Full-text (500 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Past few decades, conducting and redox active polymers play a critical role in the development of transducers for biosensing. It has been evidenced by increasing numerous reports on conducting and redox active polymers incorporated electrodes for assay of biomolcules. This review highlights the
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Past few decades, conducting and redox active polymers play a critical role in the development of transducers for biosensing. It has been evidenced by increasing numerous reports on conducting and redox active polymers incorporated electrodes for assay of biomolcules. This review highlights the potential uses of electrogenerated polymer modified electrodes and polymer/carbon nanotubes composite modified electrodes for electroanalysis of reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinuceltoide (NADH). In addition, carbon electrodes modified with organic and inorganic materials as modifier have been discussed in detail for the quantification of NADH based on mediator or mediator-less methods. Full article
Open AccessReview An Overview of Label-free Electrochemical Protein Sensors
Sensors 2007, 7(12), 3442-3458; doi:10.3390/s7123442
Received: 4 December 2007 / Accepted: 18 December 2007 / Published: 20 December 2007
Cited by 72 | PDF Full-text (666 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrochemical-based protein sensors offer sensitivity, selectivity and reliabilityat a low cost, making them very attractive tools for protein detection. Although the sensorsuse a broad range of different chemistries, they all depend on the solid electrode surface,interactions with the target protein and the molecular
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Electrochemical-based protein sensors offer sensitivity, selectivity and reliabilityat a low cost, making them very attractive tools for protein detection. Although the sensorsuse a broad range of different chemistries, they all depend on the solid electrode surface,interactions with the target protein and the molecular recognition layer. Traditionally, redoxenzymes have provided the molecular recognition elements from which target proteins haveinteracted with. This necessitates that the redox-active enzymes couple with electrodesurfaces and usually requires the participation of added diffusional components, or assemblyof the enzymes in functional chemical matrices. These complications, among many others,have seen a trend towards non-enzymatic-based electrochemical protein sensors. Severalelectrochemical detection approaches have been exploited. Basically, these have fallen intotwo categories: labeled and label-free detection systems. The former rely on a redox-activesignal from a reporter molecule or a label, which changes upon the interaction of the targetprotein. In this review, we discuss the label-free electrochemical detection of proteins,paying particular emphasis to those that exploit intrinsic redox-active amino acids. Full article

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