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Sensors 2007, 7(12), 3442-3458; doi:10.3390/s7123442

An Overview of Label-free Electrochemical Protein Sensors

1, 2 and 3,*
1 School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST),1-1 Asahidai, Nomi City, Ishikawa 923-1292, Japan 2 Dept. of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7, Canada 3 Nanobiotechnology and Biodevice Laboratory, Dept. of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2007 / Accepted: 18 December 2007 / Published: 20 December 2007
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Electrochemical-based protein sensors offer sensitivity, selectivity and reliabilityat a low cost, making them very attractive tools for protein detection. Although the sensorsuse a broad range of different chemistries, they all depend on the solid electrode surface,interactions with the target protein and the molecular recognition layer. Traditionally, redoxenzymes have provided the molecular recognition elements from which target proteins haveinteracted with. This necessitates that the redox-active enzymes couple with electrodesurfaces and usually requires the participation of added diffusional components, or assemblyof the enzymes in functional chemical matrices. These complications, among many others,have seen a trend towards non-enzymatic-based electrochemical protein sensors. Severalelectrochemical detection approaches have been exploited. Basically, these have fallen intotwo categories: labeled and label-free detection systems. The former rely on a redox-activesignal from a reporter molecule or a label, which changes upon the interaction of the targetprotein. In this review, we discuss the label-free electrochemical detection of proteins,paying particular emphasis to those that exploit intrinsic redox-active amino acids.
Keywords: label-free; electrochemical; sensor; protein; amino acids; biosensor; nanoparticles. label-free; electrochemical; sensor; protein; amino acids; biosensor; nanoparticles.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Vestergaard, M.; Kerman, K.; Tamiya, E. An Overview of Label-free Electrochemical Protein Sensors. Sensors 2007, 7, 3442-3458.

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