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A Determination of Metallothionein in Larvae of Freshwater Midges (Chironomus riparius) Using Brdicka Reaction
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and 3 Department of Animal Nutrition and Forage Production, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, and 4 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2008; in revised form: 6 July 2008 / Accepted: 6 July 2008 / Published: 10 July 2008
Abstract: Among wide spectrum of biomolecules induced by various stress factors low molecular mass protein called metallothionein (MT) is suitable for assessment of the heavy metal environmental pollution. The aim of this work was to determine the metallothionein and total thiols content in larvae of freshwater midges (Chironomus riparius) sampled from laboratory exposure to cadmium(II) ions and from field studies using differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. Unique electrochemical instrument, stationary electrochemical analyser Autolab coupled with autosampler, was utilized for the analysis of the samples. The detection limit for MT was evaluated as 5 nM. The larvae exposed to two doses (50 ng/g or 50 μg/g) of cadmium(II) ions for fifteen days under laboratory controlled conditions were at the end of the exposure killed, homogenized and analysed. MT content in control samples was 1.2 μM, in larvae exposed to 50 ng Cd/g it was 2.0 μM and in larvae exposed to 50 μg Cd/g 2.9 μM. Moreover at field study chironomid larvae as well as sediment samples have been collected from eight field sites with different levels of pollution by heavy. The metals content (chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and lead) in the sediment and or MT content in the chironomid larvae were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or Brdicka reaction, respectively.
Keywords: Catalytic Hydrogen Evolution; Brdicka Reaction; Differential Pulse Voltammetry; Environmental Marker; Thiols; Metallothionein; Heavy Metal Contamination.
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Fabrik, I.; Ruferova, Z.; Hilscherova, K.; Adam, V.; Trnkova, L.; Kizek, R. A Determination of Metallothionein in Larvae of Freshwater Midges (Chironomus riparius) Using Brdicka Reaction. Sensors 2008, 8, 4081-4094.
Fabrik I, Ruferova Z, Hilscherova K, Adam V, Trnkova L, Kizek R. A Determination of Metallothionein in Larvae of Freshwater Midges (Chironomus riparius) Using Brdicka Reaction. Sensors. 2008; 8(7):4081-4094.
Fabrik, Ivo; Ruferova, Zuzana; Hilscherova, Klara; Adam, Vojtech; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene. 2008. "A Determination of Metallothionein in Larvae of Freshwater Midges (Chironomus riparius) Using Brdicka Reaction." Sensors 8, no. 7: 4081-4094.