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Special Issue "Tissue, Cell and Molecular Bioelectrochemistry - New Trends and Approaches"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2009)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Vojtech Adam (Website)

Laboratory of Molecular Biochemistry and Bioelectrochemistry, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry & Department of Animal Nutrition and Forage Production, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Phone: +420545133350
Interests: bioelectrochemistry; protein-based biosensors; protein-protein interaction; paramagnetic particles; miniaturization
Guest Editor
Dr. René Kizek (Website)

Laboratory of Metalomics and Nanotechnology, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University and Central European Institute of Technology in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Fax: +420 545212044
Interests: electrochemical detection in biology; bioelectrochemistry; sensors; biosensors; peptides; proteins; nucleic acids

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electrochemical and bioelectrochemical techniques have been booming during last decade. Such trend relates with many factors, but the most important ones are easy-of-miniaturization and automation of electrochemical instruments. Due to miniaturization electrochemical instruments could be used in everyday life. These instruments should make easier many laborious procedures such as in situ assessment of environment pollution, dosing of drugs, monitoring of biologically important metabolites, weapons or toxic substances, gene profiling and others. The fields for application of miniaturized electrochemical or bioelectrochemical instruments are much more.

This issue will include the following topics:
1) New trends in bioelectrochemistry
2) Tissue, cell and molecular bioelectrochemistry
3) Bioelectrochemical sensors 
4) Lab on a chip, miniaturization and nanotechnology in bioelectrochemistry
5) Emergency sensors
6) Personal biosensors
7) Bioelectrochemical analysis in human and veterinary medicine (diagnostic of cancer, heart illnesses, diabetes, human genetic disorders, viral diseases)
8) Electrochemical automation and robotic systems

Dr. Vojtech Adam
Dr. René Kizek
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • molecular biology
  • molecular biochemistry
  • molecular bioelectrochemistry
  • electrochemical sensors
  • bioelectrochemical sensors
  • DNA sensors
  • protein sensors
  • lab on a chip
  • emergency sensors
  • human genetic disorders
  • detection of proteins and DNA
  • cancer
  • human disease
  • DNA and RNA chip
  • protein chip

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Pterins as Sensors of Response to the Application of Fe3+-Dextran in Piglets
Sensors 2010, 10(1), 890-900; doi:10.3390/s100100890
Received: 16 November 2009 / Revised: 30 December 2009 / Accepted: 14 January 2010 / Published: 22 January 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (156 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the presented study was to assess the effect of a single administration of Fe3+-dextran on immune cell counts and pterin biomolecule production as novel sensors of the piglets' immune system activation, and to determine concentrations of cortisol, a traditional hormonal biosensor of the stress response. Pterins (neopterin and biopterin) in the piglets' blood serum were analyzed by separation using reversed-phase HPLC. A single dose of Fe3+-dextran produced a special stress situation in the piglets' organism which manifested itself by an increased production of neopterin (p < 0.05) and biopterin (p < 0.01) in the experimental piglets. Changes in cortisol concentrations and leukocyte counts were influenced by handling stress and were not specifically correlated to iron dextran application. Iron concentrations in the internal environment of the experimental piglets’ group were higher by an order of magnitude compared with the controls, and the highest serum concentrations of iron (p < 0.01) were reached 24 h following Fe3+-dextran administration. The data presented offer a new perspective on the evaluation of stress situations in the animal organism and, not least importantly, extends the rather modest current list of references on the role of pterins in livestock animals. Full article
Open AccessArticle 1-Hydroxypyrene–A Biochemical Marker for PAH Pollution Assessment of Aquatic Ecosystem
Sensors 2010, 10(1), 203-217; doi:10.3390/s100100203
Received: 4 December 2009 / Revised: 17 December 2009 / Accepted: 22 December 2009 / Published: 28 December 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to assess aquatic contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), using the 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) content in fish bile as a biochemical marker. A total of 71 chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) were collected from seven locations on the Svitava and Svratka rivers in and around the industrial city of Brno, Czech Republic. The levels of 1-OHP were determined by reverse phase HPLC with fluorescence detection after deconjugation. Normalising the molar concentration of the biliary 1-OHP to the biliary protein content reduced sample variation. The content of 1-OHP was correlated with the PAH level in bottom sediment and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD), which was analyzed by a combination of HPLC/FLD and GC/MS methods. The highest mean values of 1-OHP were found in fish caught at the Svratka River at locations Modrice (169.2 ± 99.7 ng•mg-1 protein) and Rajhradice (152.2 ± 79.7 ng•mg-1 protein), which are located downstream from Brno. These values were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those obtained from localities Knínicky (98.4 ± 66.1 ng•mg-1 protein) and Bílovice nad Svitavou (64.1 ± 31.4 ng•mg-1 protein). The lowest contents of PAH in sediment and SPMD were found at location Knínicky (1.5 mg•kg-1 dry mass and 19.4 ng•L-1, respectively). The highest contents of PAH in sediment and SPMD were found in Rajhradice (26.0 mg•kg-1 dry mass) and Svitava before junction (65.4 ng•L-1), respectively. A Spearman correlation test was applied to determine the relationship between biliary 1-OHP and the sum of PAH in sediment and SPMD. A positive, but no statistically significant correlation was found. The main impact sources of elevated level of PAHs in sites located downstream from Brno are most probably intensive industrial and agricultural activities and domestic waste. Full article
Open AccessArticle Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power and Square Wave Voltammetry for Assay of Low Molecular Weight Antioxidants in Blood Plasma: Performance and Comparison of Methods
Sensors 2009, 9(11), 9094-9103; doi:10.3390/s91109094
Received: 2 September 2009 / Revised: 7 October 2009 / Accepted: 22 October 2009 / Published: 17 November 2009
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (125 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to employ two methods—square wave voltammetry (SWV) performed on screen printed sensors and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)—as suitable tools for the assay of low-molecular-weight antioxidants (LMWAs). LMWAs were assayed by both methods and the [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study was to employ two methods—square wave voltammetry (SWV) performed on screen printed sensors and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)—as suitable tools for the assay of low-molecular-weight antioxidants (LMWAs). LMWAs were assayed by both methods and the resulting data were statistically compared. Plasma samples from five Cinereous vultures accidentally intoxicated with lead were used to represent real biological matrices with different levels of LMWAs. Blood was collected from the birds prior to and one month after treatment with Ca-EDTA. SWV resulted in two peaks. The first peak, with the potential value of 466 ± 15 mV, was recognized as ascorbic and uric acids, while the second one (743 ± 30 mV) represented glutathione, tocopherol, ascorbic acid and in a minor effect by uric acid, too. Contribution of individual antioxidants was recognized by separate assays of LMWA standards. Correlation between peaks 1 and 2 as well as the sum of the two peaks and FRAP was analysed. While peak 1 and the sum of peaks were in close correlation to FRAP results (correlation coefficient of 0.97), the relation between peak 2 and FRAP may be expressed using a correlation coefficient of 0.64. The determination of thiols by the Ellman assay confirmed the accuracy of SWV. Levels of glutathione and other similar structures were stable in the chosen model and it may be concluded that SWV is appropriate for assay of LMWAs in plasma samples. The methods employed in the study were advantageous in minimal sample volume consumption and fast acquisition of results. Full article
Open AccessArticle Variation of Cholinesterase-Based Biosensor Sensitivity to Inhibition by Organophosphate Due To Ionizing Radiation
Sensors 2009, 9(7), 5580-5589; doi:10.3390/s90705580
Received: 22 May 2009 / Revised: 27 June 2009 / Accepted: 1 July 2009 / Published: 14 July 2009
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A cholinesterase based biosensor was constructed in order to assess the effects of ionizing radiation on exposed AChE. Although the primary objective of the experiment was to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on the activity of the biosensor, no changes in [...] Read more.
A cholinesterase based biosensor was constructed in order to assess the effects of ionizing radiation on exposed AChE. Although the primary objective of the experiment was to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on the activity of the biosensor, no changes in cholinesterase activity were observed. Current provided by oxidation of thiocholine previously created from acetylthiocholine by enzyme catalyzed reaction was in a range 395–455 nA. No significant influence of radiation on AChE activity was found, despite the current variation. However, a surprising phenomenon was observed when a model organophosphate paraoxon was assayed. Irradiated biosensors seem to be more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of paraoxon. Control biosensors provided a 94 ± 5 nA current after exposure to 1 ppm paraoxon. The biosensors irradiated by a 5 kGy radiation dose and exposed to paraoxon provided a current of 49 ± 6 nA. Irradiation by doses ranging from 5 mGy to 100 kGy were investigated and the mentioned effect was confirmed at doses above 50 Gy. After the first promising experiments, biosensors irradiated by 5 kGy were used for calibration on paraoxon and compared with the control biosensors. Limits of detection 2.5 and 3.8 ppb were achieved for irradiated and non-irradiated biosensors respectively. The overall impact of this effect is discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sunflower Plants as Bioindicators of Environmental Pollution with Lead (II) Ions
Sensors 2009, 9(7), 5040-5058; doi:10.3390/s90705040
Received: 31 May 2009 / Revised: 22 June 2009 / Accepted: 24 June 2009 / Published: 25 June 2009
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (656 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the influence of lead (II) ions on sunflower growth and biochemistry was investigated from various points of view. Sunflower plants were treated with 0, 10, 50, 100 and/or 500 µM Pb-EDTA for eight days. We observed alterations in growth [...] Read more.
In this study, the influence of lead (II) ions on sunflower growth and biochemistry was investigated from various points of view. Sunflower plants were treated with 0, 10, 50, 100 and/or 500 µM Pb-EDTA for eight days. We observed alterations in growth in all experimental groups compared with non-treated control plants. Further we determined total content of proteins by a Bradford protein assay. By the eighth day of the experiment, total protein contents in all treated plants were much lower compared to control. Particularly noticeable was the loss of approx. 8 µg/mL or 15 µg/mL in shoots or roots of plants treated with 100 mM Pb-EDTA. We also focused our attention on the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and urease. Activity of the enzymes increased with increasing length of the treatment and applied concentration of lead (II) ions. This increase corresponds well with a higher metabolic activity of treated plants. Contents of cysteine, reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and phytochelatin 2 (PC2) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Cysteine content declined in roots of plants with the increasing time of treatment of plants with Pb-EDTA and the concentration of toxic substance. Moreover, we observed ten times higher content of cysteine in roots in comparison with shoots. The observed reduction of cysteine content probably relates with its utilization for biosynthesis of GSH and phytochelatins, because the content of GSH and PC2 was similar in roots and shoots and increased with increased treatment time and concentration of Pb-EDTA. Moreover, we observed oxidative stress caused by Pb-EDTA in roots where the GSSG/GSH ratio was about 0.66. In shoots, the oxidative stress was less distinctive, with a GSSG/GSH ratio 0.14. We also estimated the rate of phytochelatin biosynthesis from the slope of linear equations plotted with data measured in the particular experimental group. The highest rate was detected in roots treated with 100 µM of Pb-EDTA. To determine heavy metal ions many analytical instruments can be used, however, most of them are only able to quantify total content of the metals. This problem can be overcome using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, because it is able to provide a high spatial-distribution of metal ions in different types of materials, including plant tissues. Data obtained were used to assemble 3D maps of Pb and Mg distribution. Distribution of these elements is concentrated around main vascular bundle of leaf, which means around midrib. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Cholinesterase Activities During in Vivo Intoxication Using an Electrochemical Sensor Strip – Correlation With Intoxication Symptoms
Sensors 2009, 9(5), 3627-3634; doi:10.3390/s90503627
Received: 20 April 2009 / Revised: 10 May 2009 / Accepted: 13 May 2009 / Published: 14 May 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (45 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cholinesterase activity in blood of laboratory rats was monitored. Rats were intoxicated with paraoxon at dosis of 0 – 65 – 125 – 170 – 250 – 500 nmol. The 250 nmol dose was found to be the LD50. An [...] Read more.
Cholinesterase activity in blood of laboratory rats was monitored. Rats were intoxicated with paraoxon at dosis of 0 – 65 – 125 – 170 – 250 – 500 nmol. The 250 nmol dose was found to be the LD50. An electrochemical sensor was found useful to provide information about cholinesterase activity. The decrease of cholinesterase activity was correlated to intoxication symptoms and mortality level. It was found that the symptoms of intoxication are not observed while at least 50% of cholinesterase activity in blood remains. The minimal cholinesterase activity essential to survival is around 10%, when compared with the initial state. No changes in levels of low moleculary weight antioxidants were observed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Preparation and Properties of Various Magnetic Nanoparticles
Sensors 2009, 9(4), 2352-2362; doi:10.3390/s90402352
Received: 13 February 2009 / Revised: 23 March 2009 / Accepted: 30 March 2009 / Published: 30 March 2009
Cited by 48 | PDF Full-text (445 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The fabrications of iron oxides nanoparticles using co-precipitation and gadolinium nanoparticles using water in oil microemulsion method are reported in this paper. Results of detailed phase analysis by XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy are discussed. XRD analysis revealed that the crystallite size (mean [...] Read more.
The fabrications of iron oxides nanoparticles using co-precipitation and gadolinium nanoparticles using water in oil microemulsion method are reported in this paper. Results of detailed phase analysis by XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy are discussed. XRD analysis revealed that the crystallite size (mean coherence length) of iron oxides (mainly γ-Fe2O3) in the Fe2O3 sample was 30 nm, while in Fe2O3/SiO2 where the ε-Fe2O3 phase dominated it was only 14 nm. Gd/SiO2 nanoparticles were found to be completely amorphous, according to XRD. The samples showed various shapes of hysteresis loops and different coercivities. Differences in the saturation magnetization (MS) correspond to the chemical and phase composition of the sample materials. However, we observed that MS was not reached in the case of Fe2O3/SiO2, while for Gd/SiO2 sample the MS value was extremely low. Therefore we conclude that only unmodified Fe2O3 nanoparticles are suitable for intended biosensing application in vitro (e.g. detection of viral nucleic acids) and the phase purification of this sample for this purpose is not necessary. Full article
Open AccessArticle EROD and MROD as Markers of Cytochrome P450 1A Activities in Hepatic Microsomes from Entire and Castrated Male Pigs
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 2134-2147; doi:10.3390/s90302134
Received: 21 February 2009 / Revised: 18 March 2009 / Accepted: 19 March 2009 / Published: 23 March 2009
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (166 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present study, we characterized the kinetic parameters of 7-ethoxy-resorufin O-deethylation (EROD) and 7-methoxyresorufin O-demethylation (MROD) in hepatic microsomes from entire and castrated male pigs. Validation parameters of an HPLC-based method to analyse EROD and MROD activities are also [...] Read more.
In the present study, we characterized the kinetic parameters of 7-ethoxy-resorufin O-deethylation (EROD) and 7-methoxyresorufin O-demethylation (MROD) in hepatic microsomes from entire and castrated male pigs. Validation parameters of an HPLC-based method to analyse EROD and MROD activities are also described. Eadie-Hofstee plot analysis demonstrated a biphasic kinetic of EROD, indicating that at least two forms of cytochrome P450 are involved in this reaction. MROD followed monophasic kinetic, suggesting that a single enzyme, or enzymes with similar affinities, is responsible for the reaction. Inhibitory effects of α-naphthoflavone (ANF), ellipticine and furafylline were studied using microsomes from entire and castrated male pigs. ANF is a known inhibitor of both cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1A2 (CYP1A1 and CYP1A2); the presence of ANF in the incubations resulted in the inhibition of both EROD and MROD activities in porcine liver microsomes. EROD activities in porcine liver microsomes were also inhibited by selective CYP1A1 inhibitor ellipticine, but not by CYP1A2 inhibitor furafylline. MROD activities were strongly inhibited by ellipticine and to a much lesser extent by furafylline. Further studies are needed to evaluate substrate specificities of porcine CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. Full article
Open AccessArticle Leeches as Sensor-bioindicators of River Contamination by PCBs
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 1807-1820; doi:10.3390/s90301807
Received: 23 February 2009 / Revised: 10 March 2009 / Accepted: 11 March 2009 / Published: 13 March 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of leeches of the genus Erpobdella as a means of assessing polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of watercourses. The River Skalice, heavily contaminated with PCBs, was selected as a model. The source of contamination [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of leeches of the genus Erpobdella as a means of assessing polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of watercourses. The River Skalice, heavily contaminated with PCBs, was selected as a model. The source of contamination was a road gravel processing factory in Rožmitál pod Třemšínem from which an estimated 1 metric ton of PCBs leaked in 1986. Levels of PCB were measured in leeches collected between 1992 to 2003 from 11 sites covering about 50 km of the river (the first sampling site upstream to the source of contamination and 10 sites downstream). The PCB indicator congeners IUPA no. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180 were measured. Levels were highest at the four sampling sites nearest the source of pollution. The highest values of PCB congeners were found in 1992. PCB content decreased from 1992 to 2003 and with distance from the source. The study indicated that leeches of the genus Erpobdella are a suitable bioindicator of contamination in the surface layer of river sediments. Full article
Open AccessArticle Study of Interactions between Metallothionein and Cisplatin by using Differential Pulse Voltammetry Brdicka´s reaction and Quartz Crystal Microbalance
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 1355-1369; doi:10.3390/s90301355
Received: 8 October 2008 / Revised: 14 February 2009 / Accepted: 17 February 2009 / Published: 26 February 2009
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (518 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Treatment strategies for tumour diseases are progressively focusing on personalization of medicine. However, this focus requires methods revealing the early general biological mechanisms, including the formation anti-cancer drugs’ resistance. The low molecular mass protein metallothionein is thought to be the crucial for [...] Read more.
Treatment strategies for tumour diseases are progressively focusing on personalization of medicine. However, this focus requires methods revealing the early general biological mechanisms, including the formation anti-cancer drugs’ resistance. The low molecular mass protein metallothionein is thought to be the crucial for the formation of resistance in tumour treatment based on the platinum-cytostatics. The interactions between metallothionein (MT) and cisplatin were determined by the adsorptive transfer stripping technique coupled with the differential pulse votlammetry Brdicka´s reaction. The signals related to the MT-cisplatin complex appeared at -0.9 V. The formation of this complex depended on the time of interaction between cisplatin and MT. The complex formation was consequently confirmed by quartz crystal microbalance analyses. The formation of this complex was detectable even after a 20 s long interaction. Moreover, we detected presence of MT-cisplatin complex in the blood of male rats treated with this drug. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Nanomaterials - Acetylcholinesterase Enzyme Matrices for Organophosphorus Pesticides Electrochemical Sensors: A Review
Sensors 2009, 9(6), 4034-4055; doi:10.3390/s90604034
Received: 15 April 2009 / Revised: 14 May 2009 / Accepted: 25 May 2009 / Published: 26 May 2009
Cited by 71 | PDF Full-text (781 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important cholinesterase enzyme present in the synaptic clefts of living organisms. It maintains the levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine by catalyzing the hydrolysis reaction of acetylcholine to thiocholine. This catalytic activity of AChE is drastically inhibited by trace [...] Read more.
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important cholinesterase enzyme present in the synaptic clefts of living organisms. It maintains the levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine by catalyzing the hydrolysis reaction of acetylcholine to thiocholine. This catalytic activity of AChE is drastically inhibited by trace amounts of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides present in the environment. As a result, effective monitoring of OP pesticides in the environment is very desirable and has been done successfully in recent years with the use of nanomaterial-based AChE sensors. In such sensors, the enzyme AChE has been immobilized onto nanomaterials like multiwalled carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles, zirconia nanoparticles, cadmium sulphide nano particles or quantum dots. These nanomaterial matrices promote significant enhancements of OP pesticide determinations, with the thiocholine oxidation occurring at much lower oxidation potentials. Moreover, nanomaterial-based AChE sensors with rapid response, increased operational and long storage stability are extremely well suited for OP pesticide determination over a wide concentration range. In this review, the unique advantages of using nanomaterials as AChE immobilization matrices are discussed. Further, detection limits, sensitivities and correlation coefficients obtained using various electroanalytical techniques have also been compared with chromatographic techniques. Full article
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