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Sensors 2007, 7(7), 1271-1286; doi:10.3390/s7071271
Article

Hazards of Secondary Bromadiolone Intoxications Evaluated using High-performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection

1, 2, 2,* , 1, 3 and 1
Received: 28 June 2007; Accepted: 18 July 2007 / Published: 20 July 2007
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Abstract: This study reported on the possibility of intoxications of non-target wild animalsassociated with use of bromadiolone as the active component of rodenticides withanticoagulation effects. A laboratory test was done with earthworms were exposed tobromadiolone-containing granules under the conditions specified in the modified OECD207 guideline. No mortality of earthworms was observed during the fourteen days longexposure. When the earthworms from the above test became a part of the diet of commonvoles in the following experiment, no mortality of consumers was observed too. However,electrochemical analysis revealed higher levels of bromadiolone in tissues fromearthworms as well as common voles compared to control animals. There were determinedcomparable levels of bromadiolone in the liver tissue of common voles after primary(2.34±0.10 μg/g) and secondary (2.20±0.53 μg/g) intoxication. Therefore, the risk ofsecondary intoxication of small mammalian species feeding on bromadiolone-containing earthworms is the same as of primary intoxication through baited granules. Bromadiolone bio-accumulation in the food chain was monitored using the newly developed analytical procedure based on the use of a liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detector (HPLC-ED). The HPLC-ED method allowed to determine the levels of bromadiolone in biological samples and is therefore suitable for examining the environmental hazards of this substance.
Keywords: anticoagulant rodenticide; electrochemistry; cyclic voltammetry; animal tissues; non-target organisms; Eisenia fetida; Microtus arvalis; Lepus europaeus anticoagulant rodenticide; electrochemistry; cyclic voltammetry; animal tissues; non-target organisms; Eisenia fetida; Microtus arvalis; Lepus europaeus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Krizkova, S.; Beklova, M.; Pikula, J.; Adam, V.; Horna, A.; Kizek, R. Hazards of Secondary Bromadiolone Intoxications Evaluated using High-performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection. Sensors 2007, 7, 1271-1286.

AMA Style

Krizkova S, Beklova M, Pikula J, Adam V, Horna A, Kizek R. Hazards of Secondary Bromadiolone Intoxications Evaluated using High-performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection. Sensors. 2007; 7(7):1271-1286.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Krizkova, Sona; Beklova, Miroslava; Pikula, Jiri; Adam, Vojtech; Horna, Ales; Kizek, René. 2007. "Hazards of Secondary Bromadiolone Intoxications Evaluated using High-performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection." Sensors 7, no. 7: 1271-1286.



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