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Hazards of Secondary Bromadiolone Intoxications Evaluated using High-performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Veterinary Ecology and Environmental Protection, Veterinary and Pharmaceutical University Brno, Palackeho 1/3, CZ-612 42 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University, T.G. Masaryka 275, CZ-762 72 Zlin, Czech Republic
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 June 2007 / Accepted: 18 July 2007 / Published: 20 July 2007
Abstract: This study reported on the possibility of intoxications of non-target wild animalsassociated with use of bromadiolone as the active component of rodenticides withanticoagulation effects. A laboratory test was done with earthworms were exposed tobromadiolone-containing granules under the conditions specified in the modified OECD207 guideline. No mortality of earthworms was observed during the fourteen days longexposure. When the earthworms from the above test became a part of the diet of commonvoles in the following experiment, no mortality of consumers was observed too. However,electrochemical analysis revealed higher levels of bromadiolone in tissues fromearthworms as well as common voles compared to control animals. There were determinedcomparable levels of bromadiolone in the liver tissue of common voles after primary(2.34±0.10 μg/g) and secondary (2.20±0.53 μg/g) intoxication. Therefore, the risk ofsecondary intoxication of small mammalian species feeding on bromadiolone-containing earthworms is the same as of primary intoxication through baited granules. Bromadiolone bio-accumulation in the food chain was monitored using the newly developed analytical procedure based on the use of a liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detector (HPLC-ED). The HPLC-ED method allowed to determine the levels of bromadiolone in biological samples and is therefore suitable for examining the environmental hazards of this substance.
Keywords: anticoagulant rodenticide; electrochemistry; cyclic voltammetry; animal tissues; non-target organisms; Eisenia fetida; Microtus arvalis; Lepus europaeus
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Krizkova, S.; Beklova, M.; Pikula, J.; Adam, V.; Horna, A.; Kizek, R. Hazards of Secondary Bromadiolone Intoxications Evaluated using High-performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection. Sensors 2007, 7, 1271-1286.
Krizkova S, Beklova M, Pikula J, Adam V, Horna A, Kizek R. Hazards of Secondary Bromadiolone Intoxications Evaluated using High-performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection. Sensors. 2007; 7(7):1271-1286.
Krizkova, Sona; Beklova, Miroslava; Pikula, Jiri; Adam, Vojtech; Horna, Ales; Kizek, René. 2007. "Hazards of Secondary Bromadiolone Intoxications Evaluated using High-performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection." Sensors 7, no. 7: 1271-1286.