Sensors 2007, 7(5), 743-759; doi:10.3390/s7050743
Article

Multi-instrumental Investigation of Affecting of Early Somatic Embryos of Spruce by Cadmium(II) and Lead(II) Ions

1 Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno, Czech Republic 2 Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno, Czech Republic Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry 3 Department of Animal Nutrition and Forage Production, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno, Czech Republic 4 nstitute of Scientific Instruments, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 147, CZ-612 00 Brno, Czech Republic 5 Department Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic 6 Department of Veterinary Ecology and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackeho 1-3, CZ-612 42 Brno, Czech Republic
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 May 2007; Accepted: 23 May 2007 / Published: 31 May 2007
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Abstract: The main aim of this work was to use multi-instrumental analytical apparatus toinvestigate the effects of treatment with cadmium(II) and/or lead(II) ions (50, 250 and 500μM) for twelve days on early somatic spruce embryos (ESEs). Primarily we used imageanalysis for estimation of growth and a fluorimetric sensor for enzymatic detection ofviability of the treated ESEs. It follows from the obtained results that Cd caused highertoxicity to ESEs than Pb. Besides this fundamental finding, we observed that ESEs grewand developed better in the presence of 500 μM of the metal ions than in the presence of250 μM. Based on the results obtained using nuclear magnetic resonance this phenomenonwas related to an increase of the area of ESE clusters by intensive uptake of water from thecultivation medium, due to dilution of the heavy metal concentration inside the cluster. Inaddition we studied the glutathione content in treated ESEs by the adsorptive transferstripping technique coupled with the differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. GSHcontents increased up to 148 ng/mg (clone 2/32) and 158 ng/mg (clone PE 14) after twelve day long treatment with Cd-EDTA ions. The GSH content was about 150 and 160 % higher in comparison with the ESEs treated with Pb-EDTA ions, respectively. The difference between GSH contents determined in ESEs treated with Pb-EDTA and Cd-EDTA ions correlates with the higher toxicity of cadmium(II) ions.
Keywords: Early somatic Spruce embryos; Glutathione; Heavy metals; Plant cells; Esterase activity; Fluorescence detection.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Supalkova, V.; Petrek, J.; Baloun, J.; Adam, V.; Bartusek, K.; Trnkova, L.; Beklova, M.; Diopan, V.; Havel, L.; Kizek, R. Multi-instrumental Investigation of Affecting of Early Somatic Embryos of Spruce by Cadmium(II) and Lead(II) Ions. Sensors 2007, 7, 743-759.

AMA Style

Supalkova V, Petrek J, Baloun J, Adam V, Bartusek K, Trnkova L, Beklova M, Diopan V, Havel L, Kizek R. Multi-instrumental Investigation of Affecting of Early Somatic Embryos of Spruce by Cadmium(II) and Lead(II) Ions. Sensors. 2007; 7(5):743-759.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Supalkova, Veronika; Petrek, Jiri; Baloun, Jiri; Adam, Vojtech; Bartusek, Karel; Trnkova, Libuse; Beklova, Miroslava; Diopan, Vaclav; Havel, Ladislav; Kizek, René. 2007. "Multi-instrumental Investigation of Affecting of Early Somatic Embryos of Spruce by Cadmium(II) and Lead(II) Ions." Sensors 7, no. 5: 743-759.

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