Sensors 2007, 7(5), 743-759; doi:10.3390/s7050743
Article

Multi-instrumental Investigation of Affecting of Early Somatic Embryos of Spruce by Cadmium(II) and Lead(II) Ions

1, 1, 1, 1, 4, 5, 6, 1, 1 and 2,* email
Received: 5 May 2007; Accepted: 23 May 2007 / Published: 31 May 2007
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The main aim of this work was to use multi-instrumental analytical apparatus toinvestigate the effects of treatment with cadmium(II) and/or lead(II) ions (50, 250 and 500μM) for twelve days on early somatic spruce embryos (ESEs). Primarily we used imageanalysis for estimation of growth and a fluorimetric sensor for enzymatic detection ofviability of the treated ESEs. It follows from the obtained results that Cd caused highertoxicity to ESEs than Pb. Besides this fundamental finding, we observed that ESEs grewand developed better in the presence of 500 μM of the metal ions than in the presence of250 μM. Based on the results obtained using nuclear magnetic resonance this phenomenonwas related to an increase of the area of ESE clusters by intensive uptake of water from thecultivation medium, due to dilution of the heavy metal concentration inside the cluster. Inaddition we studied the glutathione content in treated ESEs by the adsorptive transferstripping technique coupled with the differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. GSHcontents increased up to 148 ng/mg (clone 2/32) and 158 ng/mg (clone PE 14) after twelve day long treatment with Cd-EDTA ions. The GSH content was about 150 and 160 % higher in comparison with the ESEs treated with Pb-EDTA ions, respectively. The difference between GSH contents determined in ESEs treated with Pb-EDTA and Cd-EDTA ions correlates with the higher toxicity of cadmium(II) ions.
Keywords: Early somatic Spruce embryos; Glutathione; Heavy metals; Plant cells; Esterase activity; Fluorescence detection.
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [537 KB, uploaded 21 June 2014 00:33 CEST]

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Supalkova, V.; Petrek, J.; Baloun, J.; Adam, V.; Bartusek, K.; Trnkova, L.; Beklova, M.; Diopan, V.; Havel, L.; Kizek, R. Multi-instrumental Investigation of Affecting of Early Somatic Embryos of Spruce by Cadmium(II) and Lead(II) Ions. Sensors 2007, 7, 743-759.

AMA Style

Supalkova V, Petrek J, Baloun J, Adam V, Bartusek K, Trnkova L, Beklova M, Diopan V, Havel L, Kizek R. Multi-instrumental Investigation of Affecting of Early Somatic Embryos of Spruce by Cadmium(II) and Lead(II) Ions. Sensors. 2007; 7(5):743-759.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Supalkova, Veronika; Petrek, Jiri; Baloun, Jiri; Adam, Vojtech; Bartusek, Karel; Trnkova, Libuse; Beklova, Miroslava; Diopan, Vaclav; Havel, Ladislav; Kizek, René. 2007. "Multi-instrumental Investigation of Affecting of Early Somatic Embryos of Spruce by Cadmium(II) and Lead(II) Ions." Sensors 7, no. 5: 743-759.

Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert