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Utilizing of Square Wave Voltammetry to Detect Flavonoids in the Presence of Human Urine
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Animal Nutrition and Forage Production Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 37, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Microelectronics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno University of Technology, Udolni 53, CZ-602 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Veterinary Ecology and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackeho 1-3, CZ-612 42 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Albertov 2030, CZ-128 40 Prague, Czech Republic
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University, CZ-762 72 Zlin, Czech Republic
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 September 2007; Accepted: 17 October 2007 / Published: 19 October 2007
Abstract: About biological affecting of flavonoids on animal organisms is known less,thus we selected flavonoids, flavanones and flavones, and their glycosides, which wereexamined as potential inducers of cytochrome(s) P450 when administrated by gavages intoexperimental male rats. The study was focused on induction of CYP1A1, the majorcytochrome P450 involved in carcinogen activation. The data obtained demonstrate thenecessity of taking into account not only ability of flavonoids to bind to Ah receptor(induction factor) but also to concentrate on their distribution and metabolism (includingcolon microflora) in the body. After that we examined certain flavonoids as potential inducers of cytochrome P450, we wanted to suggest and optimize suitable electrochemical technique for determination of selected flavonoids (quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, chrysin and diosmin) in body liquids. For these purposes, we selected square wave voltannetry using carbon paste electrode. Primarily we aimed on investigation of their basic electrochemical behaviour. After that we have optimized frequency, step potential and supporting electrolyte. Based on the results obtained, we selected the most suitable conditions for determination of the flavonoids as follows: frequency 180 Hz, step potential 1.95 mV/s and phosphate buffer of pH 7 as supporting electrolyte. Detection limits (3 S/N) of the flavonoids were from units to tens of nM except diosmin, where the limit were higher than μM. In addition, we attempted to suggest a sensor for analysis of flavonoids in urine. It clearly follows from the results obtained that flavonoids can be analysed in the presence of animal urine, because urine did not influence much the signals of flavonoids (recoveries of the signals were about 90 %).
Keywords: flavonoids; antioxidant; carbon paste electrode; square wave voltammetry; western blot analysis; cytochrome P450; cancer
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Adam, V.; Mikelova, R.; Hubalek, J.; Hanustiak, P.; Beklova, M.; Hodek, P.; Horna, A.; Trnkova, L.; Stiborova, M.; Zeman, L.; Kizek, R. Utilizing of Square Wave Voltammetry to Detect Flavonoids in the Presence of Human Urine. Sensors 2007, 7, 2402-2418.
Adam V, Mikelova R, Hubalek J, Hanustiak P, Beklova M, Hodek P, Horna A, Trnkova L, Stiborova M, Zeman L, Kizek R. Utilizing of Square Wave Voltammetry to Detect Flavonoids in the Presence of Human Urine. Sensors. 2007; 7(10):2402-2418.
Adam, Vojtech; Mikelova, Radka; Hubalek, Jaromír; Hanustiak, Pavel; Beklova, Miroslava; Hodek, Petr; Horna, Ales; Trnkova, Libuse; Stiborova, Marie; Zeman, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene. 2007. "Utilizing of Square Wave Voltammetry to Detect Flavonoids in the Presence of Human Urine." Sensors 7, no. 10: 2402-2418.