E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Natural Antioxidants and Ageing"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Maurizio Battino

Department of Odontostomatologic and Specialized Clinical Sciences, Sez-Biochimica, Faculty of Medicine, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri 65, 60100 Ancona, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39 071 2204646
Fax: +39 071 2204398
Interests: nutrition; periodontal diseases/periodontitis; oxidative stress; nutrition; aging; mitochondrial function and diseases; berries (strawberry, blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, etc.); olive oil (dietary fats); honey, polyphenols; flavonoids; antioxidants, apoptosis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Special Issue on “Natural Antioxidants and Ageing” should focus on the roles played by antioxidant compounds present in fruits and vegetables and the effects the may elicit, focusing special attention on the activities they may exert on the prevention and the treatment of aging and aging-related diseases. Aging is the result of the build-up of oxidative damage throughout life; some modifications are not completely repaired and thus accumulate, leading to cell death, organism malfunction/dysfunction, and finally to the “aging phenotype”. Oxidative damage is accepted as a primary event in aging; many studies have demonstrated the strong correlation between aging and an increase in oxidative damage to tissues throughout the body. Currently, the development of interventions to retard the aging process, which is focused on extending maximum life span and/or retarding a broad spectrum of age-associated biological changes, is of great importance. In this context, exogenous antioxidants from the diet fill an important beneficial role in counteracting oxidative stress and improving the endogenous antioxidant defenses of the human body: indeed, the importance of a balanced diet, rich in antioxidant compounds, is widely recognized in the improvement of the aging status. In addition to the potential health benefits of macro- and micronutrient components, growing attention has addressed non-nutritive phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables, such as polyphenols, which are able to detoxify free radicals, blocking their production, to intervene in the cell cycle, to regulate the transduction and expression of many genes involved in the stimulation of antioxidant defenses such as Nfr2, in mitochondrial biogenesis, such as AMPK, SIRT1 and PGC1α, and in the repair of oxidative DNA damage, such as OGG1.

In conclusion, this Special Issue should review all the aspects concerning natural dietary antioxidants and aging, focusing on the biochemical, molecular and clinic effects that these compounds may exert both in vitro and in vivo.

Prof. Dr. Maurizio Battino
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • dietary antioxidants
  • oxidative stress
  • free radicals
  • polyphenols
  • chronic diseases
  • gene regulation
  • inflammation
  • signal pathways

Published Papers (29 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-29
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Redox-Active Profile Characterization of Remirea maritima Extracts and Its Cytotoxic Effect in Mouse Fibroblasts (L929) and Melanoma (B16F10) Cells
Molecules 2015, 20(7), 11699-11718; doi:10.3390/molecules200711699
Received: 8 December 2014 / Revised: 6 May 2015 / Accepted: 12 May 2015 / Published: 25 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (922 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Remirea maritima is a tropical plant with a reticulated root system belonging to the family Cyperaceae, also known to have biologically active secondary metabolites. However, very few data on R. maritima’s biological actions are available and there are no reports regarding the redox-active
[...] Read more.
Remirea maritima is a tropical plant with a reticulated root system belonging to the family Cyperaceae, also known to have biologically active secondary metabolites. However, very few data on R. maritima’s biological actions are available and there are no reports regarding the redox-active profile of this plant. In this study, we examined the total phenolic content of Remirea maritima hydroalcoholic (RMHA) extracts, redox properties against different reactive species generated in vitro and their cytotoxic effect against fibroblasts (L929) and melanoma (B16F10) cells. Total reactive antioxidant potential index (TRAP) and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR) results revealed that RMHA at all concentrations tested showed significant antioxidant capacity. RMHA was also effective against hydroxyl radical formation, reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ and in scavenging nitric oxide (NO) radicals. In vitro, the level of lipid peroxidation was reduced by RMHA extract and the data showed significant oxidative damage protection. The RMHA cytotoxicity was evaluated by a neutral red assay in fibroblast (L929) and melanome (B16F10) cells. The obtained results showed that the RMHA (40 and 80 µg/mL, respectively) reduced 70% of the viable cells. In conclusion, this study represents the first report regarding the antioxidant and anti-proliferative potential of R. maritima against B16F10 melanoma cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Isolation and Characterisation of in Vitro and Cellular Free Radical Scavenging Peptides from Corn Peptide Fractions
Molecules 2015, 20(2), 3221-3237; doi:10.3390/molecules20023221
Received: 14 October 2014 / Revised: 3 February 2015 / Accepted: 9 February 2015 / Published: 16 February 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (768 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Corn gluten meal, a corn processing industry by-product, is a good source for the preparation of bioactive peptides due to its special amino acid composition. In the present study, the in vitro and cellular free radical scavenging activities of corn peptide fractions (CPFs)
[...] Read more.
Corn gluten meal, a corn processing industry by-product, is a good source for the preparation of bioactive peptides due to its special amino acid composition. In the present study, the in vitro and cellular free radical scavenging activities of corn peptide fractions (CPFs) were investigated. Results indicated that CPF1 (molecular weight less than 1 kDa) and CPF2 (molecular weight between 1 and 3 kDa) exhibited good hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Meanwhile, the in vitro radical scavenging activity of CPF1 was slightly higher than that of CPF2. Both CPF1 and CPF2 also exhibited significant cytoprotective effects and intracellular reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in Caco-2 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The amino acid composition analysis revealed that the CPF were rich in hydrophobic amino acids, which comprised of more than 45% of total amino acids. An antioxidant peptide sequence of Tyr-Phe-Cys-Leu-Thr (YFCLT) was identified from CPF1 using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS). The YFCLT exhibited excellent ABTS radical scavenging activity with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) value of 37.63 µM, which was much lower than that of Trolox. In conclusion, corn gluten meal might be a good source to prepare antioxidant peptides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Characterisation of Mediterranean Grape Pomace Seed and Skin Extracts: Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity
Molecules 2015, 20(2), 2190-2207; doi:10.3390/molecules20022190
Received: 25 November 2014 / Revised: 8 January 2015 / Accepted: 19 January 2015 / Published: 29 January 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (724 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI]) were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70])
[...] Read more.
Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI]) were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70]) for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins), flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW) and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively). These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW) and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW). Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Ameliorating the Effect of Astragaloside IV on Learning and Memory Deficit after Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion in Rats
Molecules 2015, 20(2), 1904-1921; doi:10.3390/molecules20021904
Received: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 12 January 2015 / Published: 23 January 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1072 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) has been reported to have a prominent antioxidant effect and was proposed as a promising agent for the prevention of neurodegenerative disorders accompanied by cognitive impairment. The present study investigated the ameliorating effect of AS-IV on learning and memory deficits
[...] Read more.
Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) has been reported to have a prominent antioxidant effect and was proposed as a promising agent for the prevention of neurodegenerative disorders accompanied by cognitive impairment. The present study investigated the ameliorating effect of AS-IV on learning and memory deficits induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats. Rats were treated with two doses of AS-IV (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 28 days starting from the 5th week after permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. AS-IV treatment (at dose of 20 mg/kg) significantly improved the spatial learning and memory deficits assessed using the Morris water maze test in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. AS-IV significantly attenuated neuronal apoptosis as well as the levels of superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxidation markers, including malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, in the hippocampus. AS-IV also significantly reduced 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine expression, a maker of oxidative DNA damage, while significantly inhibited the astrocyte and microglia activation in the hippocampus. The results indicate that AS-IV has therapeutic potential for the prevention of dementia caused by cerebral hypoperfusion and suggest that the ameliorating effect of AS-IV on learning and memory deficits might be the result of suppressing neuronal apoptosis and oxidative damage in the hippocampus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Polyphenolic Profile, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Eastern Teaberry (Gaultheria procumbens L.) Leaf Extracts
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20498-20520; doi:10.3390/molecules191220498
Received: 4 November 2014 / Revised: 28 November 2014 / Accepted: 1 December 2014 / Published: 8 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1345 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Dry leaf extracts of eastern teaberry (Gaultheria procumbens L.) were evaluated as a source of bioactive phytocompounds through systematic activity testing and phytochemical profiling. The antioxidant efficiency was tested using five complementary in vitro models (DPPH; FRAP; linoleic acid (LA) peroxidation assay;
[...] Read more.
Dry leaf extracts of eastern teaberry (Gaultheria procumbens L.) were evaluated as a source of bioactive phytocompounds through systematic activity testing and phytochemical profiling. The antioxidant efficiency was tested using five complementary in vitro models (DPPH; FRAP; linoleic acid (LA) peroxidation assay; O2•− and H2O2 scavenging tests) in parallel with standard antioxidants. The 75% methanol extract and its diethyl ether, ethyl acetate (EAF), n-butanol and water fractions exhibited the dose-dependent responses in all assays, with the highest capacities found for EAF (DPPH EC50 = 2.9 μg/mL; FRAP = 12.8 mmol Fe2+/g; IC50 for LA-peroxidation = 123.9 μg/mL; O2•− SC50 = 3.9 μg/mL; H2O2 SC50 = 7.2 μg/mL). The EAF had also the highest anti-inflammatory activity in the inhibition tests of lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase (60.14% and 21.83% effects, respectively, at the concentration of 100 μg/mL). Activity parameters of the extracts correlated strongly with the levels of total phenolics (72.4–270.7 mg GAE/g), procyanidins, and phenolic acids, whereas for flavonoids only moderate effects were observed. Comprehensive UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS3 and HPLC-PDA studies led to the identification of 35 polyphenols with a procyanidin A-type trimer, quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, isomers of caffeoylquinic acids, and (‒)-epicatechin being the dominant components. Significant activity levels, high phenolic contents and high extraction yields (39.4%–42.5% DW for defatted and crude methanol extracts, respectively) indicate the value of eastern teaberry leaves as bioactive products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Effects of Selected Dietary Secondary Metabolites on Reactive Oxygen Species Production Caused by Iron(II) Autoxidation
Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20023-20033; doi:10.3390/molecules191220023
Received: 11 August 2014 / Revised: 22 November 2014 / Accepted: 24 November 2014 / Published: 1 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iron is an essential co-factor for many enzymes that catalyze electron transfer reactions. It is well known that so-called “poorly liganded” iron can increase ROS concentrations and trigger oxidative stress that is capable of initiating apoptosis. Conversely, controlled ROS production has been recognized
[...] Read more.
Iron is an essential co-factor for many enzymes that catalyze electron transfer reactions. It is well known that so-called “poorly liganded” iron can increase ROS concentrations and trigger oxidative stress that is capable of initiating apoptosis. Conversely, controlled ROS production has been recognized as an integral part of cellular signaling. Elevated ROS concentrations are associated with aging, inflammatory and degenerative diseases. Anti-aging properties have been attributed especially to antioxidant phenolic plant metabolites that represent food additives in our diet. Consequently, this study explores the effects of flavonoids (quercetin and rutin), several phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, and protocatechuic acid), and the alkaloid caffeine on iron(II) autoxidation and ROS production in comparison to the standard antioxidants ascorbic acid and Trolox. The iron(II) autoxidation assay was carried out in pH 6.0 (plant apoplast and inflamed human tissue) and 7.4 (cell cytoplasm and human blood plasma). The obtained results accentuate phenolic acids as the more specific antioxidants compared to ascorbic acid and Trolox. Flavonoid redox chemistry depends more on the chemical milieu, specifically on pH. In vivo, the presence of iron cannot be ruled out and “wrongly” or “poorly” complexed iron has been pointed out as causative agent of various age-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Effects of the Continuous Administration of an Agaricus blazei Extract to Rats on Oxidative Parameters of the Brain and Liver during Aging
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18590-18603; doi:10.3390/molecules191118590
Received: 7 October 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 7 November 2014 / Published: 13 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An investigation of the effects of an aqueous extract of Agaricus blazei, a medicinal mushroom, on the oxidative state of the brain and liver of rats during aging (7 to 23 months) was conducted. The treatment consisted in the daily intragastric administration
[...] Read more.
An investigation of the effects of an aqueous extract of Agaricus blazei, a medicinal mushroom, on the oxidative state of the brain and liver of rats during aging (7 to 23 months) was conducted. The treatment consisted in the daily intragastric administration of 50 mg/kg of the extract. The A. blazei treatment tended to maintain the ROS contents of the brain and liver at lower levels, but a significant difference was found only at the age of 23 months and in the brain. The TBARS levels in the brain were maintained at lower levels by the A. blazei treatment during the whole aging process with a specially pronounced difference at the age of 12 months. The total antioxidant capacity in the brain was higher in treated rats only at the age of 12 months. Compared with previous studies in which old rats (21 months) were treated during a short period of 21 days with 200 mg/kg, the effects of the A. blazei extract in the present study tended to be less pronounced. The results also indicate that the long and constant treatment presented a tendency of becoming less effective at ages above 12 months. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Efficacy Evaluation of a Multifunctional Cosmetic Formulation: The Benefits of a Combination of Active Antioxidant Substances
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18268-18282; doi:10.3390/molecules191118268
Received: 29 April 2014 / Revised: 30 September 2014 / Accepted: 30 September 2014 / Published: 10 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (463 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study presents the association of active antioxidants substances in a multifunctional cosmetic formulation with established efficacy against signs of aging. A multifunctional cosmetic formulation containing an association of UV filters and antioxidant substances (liposoluble vitamins A, C and E, Ginkgo biloba and
[...] Read more.
This study presents the association of active antioxidants substances in a multifunctional cosmetic formulation with established efficacy against signs of aging. A multifunctional cosmetic formulation containing an association of UV filters and antioxidant substances (liposoluble vitamins A, C and E, Ginkgo biloba and Phorphyra umbilicalis extracts) was evaluated. This formulation was submitted to a clinical efficacy study using biophysics techniques and skin images analysis (digital photography imaging systems, 20 MHz ultrasound, and reflectance confocal microscopy). The volunteers applied the formulation containing the UV filters and antioxidant substances during the day and the formulation with antioxidant substances and without the UV filters at night, for 90 days. The formulation increased the hydration and protected the skin barrier function after a single application. At the long term assessment the formulation provided an improvement in skin barrier function and skin hydration to the deeper layers of the epidermis, leading to an improvement in skin appearance by reducing wrinkles and skin roughness. The multifunctional cosmetic formulation studied can be suggested to preventing signs of aging and improving skin conditions. In addition, this study presents the benefits of associating different active antioxidants substances in a single cosmetic formulation to prevent skin aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Hepatoprotective Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Simarouba amara Aublet (Simaroubaceae) Stem Bark against Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4)-Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 17735-17746; doi:10.3390/molecules191117735
Received: 1 September 2014 / Revised: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 21 October 2014 / Published: 31 October 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (748 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Simarouba amara stem bark decoction has been traditionally used in Brazil to treat malaria, inflammation, fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, wounds and as a tonic. In this study, we investigate the hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of S. amara stem bark (SAAE) on
[...] Read more.
Simarouba amara stem bark decoction has been traditionally used in Brazil to treat malaria, inflammation, fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, wounds and as a tonic. In this study, we investigate the hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of S. amara stem bark (SAAE) on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. SAAE was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. The animals were divided into six groups (n = 6/group). Groups I (vehicle—corn oil), II (control-CCl4), III, IV, V and VI were pretreated during 10 consecutive days, once a day p.o, with Legalon® 50 mg/kg b.w, SAAE at doses 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively. The hepatotoxicity was induced on 11th day with 2 mL/kg of 20% CCl4 solution. 24 h after injury, the blood samples were collected and their livers were removed to biochemical and immunohistochemical analyzes. The SAAE decreased the levels of liver markers and lipid peroxidation in all doses and increased the catalase levels at doses 250 and 500 mg/kg. Immunohistochemical results suggested hepatocyte proliferation in all doses. These results may be related to catechins present in SAAE. Thus, SAAE prevented the oxidative damage at the same time that increased regenerative and reparative capacities of the liver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle β-Sitosterol Protects against Carbon Tetrachloride Hepatotoxicity but not Gentamicin Nephrotoxicity in Rats via the Induction of Mitochondrial Glutathione Redox Cycling
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 17649-17662; doi:10.3390/molecules191117649
Received: 14 September 2014 / Revised: 23 October 2014 / Accepted: 24 October 2014 / Published: 30 October 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Previous findings have demonstrated that β-sitosterol (BSS), an active component of Cistanches Herba, protected against oxidant injury in H9c2 cardiomyocytes and in rat hearts by enhancing mitochondrial glutathione redox cycling, possibly through the intermediacy of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. We therefore hypothesized
[...] Read more.
Previous findings have demonstrated that β-sitosterol (BSS), an active component of Cistanches Herba, protected against oxidant injury in H9c2 cardiomyocytes and in rat hearts by enhancing mitochondrial glutathione redox cycling, possibly through the intermediacy of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. We therefore hypothesized that BSS pretreatment can also confer tissue protection against oxidant injury in other vital organs such as liver and kidney of rats. In this study, the effects of BSS pretreatment on rat models of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) hepatotoxicity and gentamicin nephrotoxicity were investigated. The findings showed that BSS pretreatment protected against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, but not gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats. The hepatoprotection afforded by BSS was associated with the improvement in mitochondrial glutathione redox status, presumably through the glutathione reductase-mediated enhancement in mitochondrial glutathione redox cycling. The hepatoprotection afforded by BSS was also accompanied by the improved mitochondrial functional ability in rat livers. The inability of BSS to protect against gentamicin nephrotoxicity was likely due to the relatively low bioavailability of BSS in rat kidneys. BSS may serve as potential mitohormetic agent for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced injury in livers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle HPLC-UV-MS Profiles of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Fruits from Three Citrus Species Consumed in Northern Chile
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 17400-17421; doi:10.3390/molecules191117400
Received: 9 August 2014 / Revised: 12 September 2014 / Accepted: 22 September 2014 / Published: 29 October 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (2542 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Peels and edible pulp from three species of citrus including Citrus aurantifolia (varieties pica and sutil) and Citrus x lemon var. Genova widely cultivated and consumed in Northern Chile (I and II region) were analyzed for phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity for the
[...] Read more.
Peels and edible pulp from three species of citrus including Citrus aurantifolia (varieties pica and sutil) and Citrus x lemon var. Genova widely cultivated and consumed in Northern Chile (I and II region) were analyzed for phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity for the first time. A high performance electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-ESI-MS) method was developed for the rapid identification of phenolics in extracts from peels and juices of all species. Several flavonoids including one kaempferol-O-hexoside (peak 16) and one hesperidin derivative (peak 22) three quercetin derivatives (peaks 4, 19 and 36), five isorhamnetin derivatives (peaks 5, 23, 24, 26 and 29) four luteolin derivatives (peaks 14, 25, 27 and 40), seven apigenin derivatives (peaks 2, 3, 12, 20, 34, 35 and 39), seven diosmetin derivatives (peaks 79, 17, 21, 31 and 37), three chrysoeriol derivatives (peaks 10, 18 and 30), and four eryodictiol derivatives (peaks 6, 13, 15 and 38) were identified in negative and positive mode using full scan mass measurements and MSn fragmentations. Ascorbic acid content was higher in the pulps of the varieties Genova and Sutil (60.13 ± 1.28 and 56.53 ± 1.06 mg ascorbic acid per g dry weight, respectively) while total phenolic content was higher in Pica peels followed by Sutil peels (34.59 ± 0.81 and 25.58 ± 1.02 mg/g GAE dry weight, respectively). The antioxidant capacity was also higher for Pica peels (10.34 ± 1.23 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 120.63 ± 2.45 µM trolox equivalents/g dry weight in the FRAP assay). The antioxidant features together with the high polyphenolic contents can support at least in part, the usage of the peel extracts as nutraceutical supplements, especially to be used as anti-ageing products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity and Anti-Ageing Biomarkers after Diet Micronutrient Supplementation
Molecules 2014, 19(9), 14794-14808; doi:10.3390/molecules190914794
Received: 17 July 2014 / Revised: 3 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 17 September 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (748 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A growing number of studies confirm an important effect of diet, lifestyle and physical activity on health status, the ageing process and many metabolic disorders. This study focuses on the influence of a diet supplement, NucleVital®Q10 Complex, on parameters related to
[...] Read more.
A growing number of studies confirm an important effect of diet, lifestyle and physical activity on health status, the ageing process and many metabolic disorders. This study focuses on the influence of a diet supplement, NucleVital®Q10 Complex, on parameters related to redox homeostasis and ageing. An experimental group of 66 healthy volunteer women aged 35–55 supplemented their diet for 12 weeks with the complex, which contained omega-3 acids (1350 mg/day), ubiquinone (300 mg/day), astaxanthin (15 mg/day), lycopene (45 mg/day), lutein palmitate (30 mg/day), zeaxanthine palmitate (6 mg/day), L-selenomethionine (330 mg/day), cholecalciferol (30 µg/day) and α-tocopherol (45 mg/day). We found that NucleVital®Q10 Complex supplementation significantly increased total antioxidant capacity of plasma and activity of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, with slight effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in erythrocytes; MDA and 4-hydroxyalkene levels. Apart from the observed antioxidative effects, the tested supplement also showed anti-ageing activity. Analysis of expression of SIRT1 and 2 in PBMCs showed significant changes for both genes on a mRNA level. The level of telomerase was also increased by more than 25%, although the length of lymphocyte telomeres, determined by RT-PCR, remained unchanged. Our results demonstrate beneficial effects concerning the antioxidant potential of plasma as well as biomarkers related to ageing even after short term supplementation of diet with NucleVital®Q10 Complex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Antioxidant and Nitrite-Scavenging Capacities of Phenolic Compounds from Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Tops
Molecules 2014, 19(9), 13147-13160; doi:10.3390/molecules190913147
Received: 4 July 2014 / Revised: 15 August 2014 / Accepted: 15 August 2014 / Published: 26 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (715 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sugarcane tops were extracted with 50% ethanol and fractionated by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butyl alcohol successively. Eight phenolic compounds in EtOAc extracts were purified through silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and then identified by nuclear magnetic resonance
[...] Read more.
Sugarcane tops were extracted with 50% ethanol and fractionated by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butyl alcohol successively. Eight phenolic compounds in EtOAc extracts were purified through silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and then identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectra. The results showed that eight phenolic compounds from EtOAc extracts were identified as caffeic acid, cis-p-hydroxycinnamic acid, quercetin, apigenin, albanin A, australone A, moracin M, and 5'-geranyl-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone. The antioxidant and nitrite-scavenging capacities of different solvent extracts correlated positively with their total phenolic (TP) contents. Amongst various extracts, EtOAc extracts possessed the highest TP content and presented the strongest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity, 2,2'-azobis-3-ethylbenthiaazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and nitrite-scavenging capacity. Thus, sugarcane tops could be promoted as a source of natural antioxidant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Variations in Thirteen Moringa oleifera Lam. Cultivars
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10480-10494; doi:10.3390/molecules190710480
Received: 13 June 2014 / Revised: 2 July 2014 / Accepted: 9 July 2014 / Published: 18 July 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (276 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A study was undertaken to assess variation in antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of thirteen Moringa oleifera cultivars obtained from different locations across the globe. Standard antioxidant methods including the DPPH scavenging, ferric reducing power (FRAP) and β-carotene-linoleic acid model were used
[...] Read more.
A study was undertaken to assess variation in antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of thirteen Moringa oleifera cultivars obtained from different locations across the globe. Standard antioxidant methods including the DPPH scavenging, ferric reducing power (FRAP) and β-carotene-linoleic acid model were used to evaluate the activity. Variation in the antioxidant activity was observed, with TOT4951 from Thailand being the most active, with activity five times higher than that of ascorbic acid (reference compound). A different trend was observed for the activity in the FRAP and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Klebsiella pneumoniae) strains using the microdilution method. Acetone extracts of all cultivars exhibited good antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae (MIC values of 0.78 mg/mL). The remaining extracts exhibited weak activity against the two microorganisms. For the antifungal activity, all the extracts exhibited low activity. Variations were observed in the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Cultivars TOT5169 (Thailand) and SH (South Africa) exhibited highest amounts of total phenolic compounds while TOT5028 (Thailand) exhibited the lowest amounts of five times lower than the highest. The information offer an understanding on variations between cultivars from different geographical locations and is important in the search for antioxidant supplementation and anti-ageing products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Identification of Catechol as a New Marker for Detecting Propolis Adulteration
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10208-10217; doi:10.3390/molecules190710208
Received: 18 June 2014 / Revised: 2 July 2014 / Accepted: 10 July 2014 / Published: 14 July 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Adulteration of propolis with poplar extract is a serious issue in the bee products market. The aim of this study was to identify marker compounds in adulterated propolis, and examine the transformation of chemical components from poplar buds to propolis. The chemical profiles
[...] Read more.
Adulteration of propolis with poplar extract is a serious issue in the bee products market. The aim of this study was to identify marker compounds in adulterated propolis, and examine the transformation of chemical components from poplar buds to propolis. The chemical profiles of poplar extracts and propolis were compared, and a new marker compound, catechol, was isolated and identified from the extracts of poplar buds. The polyphenol oxidase, catechol oxidase, responsible for catalyzing oxidation of catechol was detected in poplar buds and propolis. The results indicate catechol can be used as a marker to detect propolis adulterated with poplar extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Novel Cinnamic Acid Derivatives as Antioxidant and Anticancer Agents: Design, Synthesis and Modeling Studies
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 9655-9674; doi:10.3390/molecules19079655
Received: 5 May 2014 / Revised: 13 June 2014 / Accepted: 17 June 2014 / Published: 7 July 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (507 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cinnamic acids have been identified as interesting compounds with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties. In the present study, simple cinnamic acids were synthesized by Knoevenagel condensation reactions and evaluated for the above biological activities. Compound 4ii proved to be the most potent LOX
[...] Read more.
Cinnamic acids have been identified as interesting compounds with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties. In the present study, simple cinnamic acids were synthesized by Knoevenagel condensation reactions and evaluated for the above biological activities. Compound 4ii proved to be the most potent LOX inhibitor. Phenyl- substituted acids showed better inhibitory activity against soybean LOX, and it must be noted that compounds 4i and 3i with higher lipophilicity values resulted less active than compounds 2i and 1i. The compounds have shown very good activity in different antioxidant assays. The antitumor properties of these derivatives have been assessed by their 1/IC50 inhibitory values in the proliferation of HT-29, A-549, OAW-42, MDA-MB-231, HeLa and MRC-5 normal cell lines. The compounds presented low antitumor activity considering the IC50 values attained for the cell lines, with the exception of compound 4ii. Molecular docking studies were carried out on cinnamic acid derivative 4ii and were found to be in accordance with our experimental biological results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Regulatory Effects of Fisetin on Microglial Activation
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 8820-8839; doi:10.3390/molecules19078820
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 13 June 2014 / Accepted: 18 June 2014 / Published: 26 June 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (2770 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play a key role in neurodegeneration. Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its antioxidant
[...] Read more.
Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play a key role in neurodegeneration. Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its antioxidant properties. In the present study, treatment with fisetin inhibited microglial cell migration and ROS (reactive oxygen species) production. Treatment with fisetin also effectively inhibited LPS plus IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in microglial cells. Furthermore, fisetin also reduced expressions of iNOS and NO by stimulation of peptidoglycan, the major component of the Gram-positive bacterium cell wall. Fisetin also inhibited the enhancement of LPS/IFN-γ- or peptidoglycan-induced inflammatory mediator IL (interlukin)-1 β expression. Besides the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of fisetin, our study also elucidates the manner in fisetin-induced an endogenous anti-oxidative enzyme HO (heme oxygenase)-1 expression. Moreover, the regulatory molecular mechanism of fisetin-induced HO-1 expression operates through the PI-3 kinase/AKT and p38 signaling pathways in microglia. Notably, fisetin also significantly attenuated inflammation-related microglial activation and coordination deficit in mice in vivo. These findings suggest that fisetin may be a candidate agent for the development of therapies for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle A PPARγ, NF-κB and AMPK-Dependent Mechanism May Be Involved in the Beneficial Effects of Curcumin in the Diabetic db/db Mice Liver
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8289-8302; doi:10.3390/molecules19068289
Received: 11 April 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 12 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (997 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family which has been used to treat biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, rheumatism, cancer, sinusitis, hepatic disorders, hyperglycemia, obesity, and diabetes in both Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine. Suggested mechanisms
[...] Read more.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family which has been used to treat biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, rheumatism, cancer, sinusitis, hepatic disorders, hyperglycemia, obesity, and diabetes in both Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine. Suggested mechanisms of action include the modulation of signal transduction cascades and effects on gene expression, however they remain to be elucidated. In this study, the expression of some proteins responsible for transcription factors, inflammation, and metabolic control were evaluated by western blot in 15-week-old db/db mice livers treated with curcumin 0.75% mixed in their diet for 8 weeks. In addition, nitrosative stress was evaluated. Curcumin increased the expression of AMPK and PPARγ, and diminished NF-κB protein in db/db mice. However, it did not modify the expression of PGC-1α or SIRT1. Nitrosative stress present in db/db mice livers was determined by a unique nitrotyrosylated protein band (75 kDa) and was not reverted with curcumin. In conclusion, curcumin regulates the expression of AMPK, PPARγ, and NF-κB; suggesting a beneficial effect for treatment of T2DM complications. In order to observe best beneficial effects it is desirable to administer curcumin in the earlier states of T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Ethyl Ferulate, a Component with Anti-Inflammatory Properties for Emulsion-Based Creams
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 8124-8139; doi:10.3390/molecules19068124
Received: 28 April 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ethyl ferulate (FAEE) has been widely studied due to its beneficial heath properties and, when incorporated in creams, shows a high sun protection capacity. Here we aimed to compare FAEE and its precursor, ferulic acid (FA), as free radical scavengers, inhibitors of oxidants
[...] Read more.
Ethyl ferulate (FAEE) has been widely studied due to its beneficial heath properties and, when incorporated in creams, shows a high sun protection capacity. Here we aimed to compare FAEE and its precursor, ferulic acid (FA), as free radical scavengers, inhibitors of oxidants produced by leukocytes and the alterations in rheological properties when incorporated in emulsion based creams. The cell-free antiradical capacity of FAEE was decreased compared to FA. However, FAEE was more effective regarding the scavenging of reactive oxygen species produced by activated leukocytes. Stress and frequency sweep tests showed that the formulations are more elastic than viscous. The viscoelastic features of the formulations were confirmed in the creep and recovery assay and showed that the FAEE formulation was less susceptive to deformation. Liberation experiments showed that the rate of FAEE release from the emulsion was slower compared to FA. In conclusion, FAEE is more effective than FA as a potential inhibitor of oxidative damage produced by oxidants generated by leukocytes. The rheological alterations caused by the addition of FAEE are indicative of lower spreadability, which could be useful for formulations used in restricted areas of the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Polyphenol-Rich Strawberry Extract Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidative Damage and Improves Mitochondrial Functionality
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7798-7816; doi:10.3390/molecules19067798
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 5 June 2014 / Accepted: 6 June 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Strawberry bioactive compounds are widely known to be powerful antioxidants. In this study, the antioxidant and anti-aging activities of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract were evaluated using human dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2. Firstly, the phenol and flavonoid contents of
[...] Read more.
Strawberry bioactive compounds are widely known to be powerful antioxidants. In this study, the antioxidant and anti-aging activities of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract were evaluated using human dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2. Firstly, the phenol and flavonoid contents of strawberry extract were studied, as well as the antioxidant capacity. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to determine the vitamin C and β-carotene concentration, while HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis was used for anthocyanin identification. Strawberry extract presented a high antioxidant capacity, and a relevant concentration of vitamins and phenolics. Pelargonidin- and cyanidin-glycosides were the most representative anthocyanin components of the fruits. Fibroblasts incubated with strawberry extract and stressed with H2O2 showed an increase in cell viability, a smaller intracellular amount of ROS, and a reduction of membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Strawberry extract was also able to improve mitochondrial functionality, increasing the basal respiration of mitochondria and to promote a regenerative capacity of cells after exposure to pro-oxidant stimuli. These findings confirm that strawberries possess antioxidant properties and provide new insights into the beneficial role of strawberry bioactive compounds on protecting skin from oxidative stress and aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Salidroside Protects Caenorhabditis elegans Neurons from Polyglutamine-Mediated Toxicity by Reducing Oxidative Stress
Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7757-7769; doi:10.3390/molecules19067757
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 30 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (469 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyglutamine (polyQ) aggregation plays a pivotal role in the pathological process of Huntington’s disease and other polyQ disorders. Therefore, strategies aiming at restoring dysfunction and reducing stresses mediated by polyQ toxicity are of therapeutic interest for proteotoxicity diseases. Salidroside, a glycoside from Rhodiola
[...] Read more.
Polyglutamine (polyQ) aggregation plays a pivotal role in the pathological process of Huntington’s disease and other polyQ disorders. Therefore, strategies aiming at restoring dysfunction and reducing stresses mediated by polyQ toxicity are of therapeutic interest for proteotoxicity diseases. Salidroside, a glycoside from Rhodiola rosea, has been shown to have a variety of bioactivities, including antioxidant activity. Using transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans models, we show here that salidroside is able to reduce neuronal death and behavioral dysfunction mediated by polyQ expressed in ASH neurons, but the neuroprotective effect is not associated with prevention of polyQ aggregation per se. Further experiments reveal that the neuroprotective effect of salidroside in C. elegans models involves its antioxidant capabilities, including decrease of ROS levels and paraquat-induced mortality, increase of antioxidant enzyme activities and reduction of lipid peroxidation. These results demonstrate that salidroside exerts its neuroprotective function against polyQ toxicity via oxidative stress pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Antioxidant and Anticancer Constituents from the Leaves of Liriodendron tulipifera
Molecules 2014, 19(4), 4234-4245; doi:10.3390/molecules19044234
Received: 12 February 2014 / Revised: 24 March 2014 / Accepted: 26 March 2014 / Published: 3 April 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sixteen compounds were extracted and purified from the leaves of Liriodendron tulipifera. These compounds include aporphines, oxoaporphine, coumarin, sesquiterpene lactone, benzenoids, cyclitol and steroids. (+)-Norstephalagine (2) (an aporphine) and scopoletin (8) (a coumarin) were isolated from Liriodendron tulipifera
[...] Read more.
Sixteen compounds were extracted and purified from the leaves of Liriodendron tulipifera. These compounds include aporphines, oxoaporphine, coumarin, sesquiterpene lactone, benzenoids, cyclitol and steroids. (+)-Norstephalagine (2) (an aporphine) and scopoletin (8) (a coumarin) were isolated from Liriodendron tulipifera leaves from the first time. The identified compounds were screened for their antiradical scavenging, metal chelating and ferric reducing power activities. The results have showed that these compounds have antioxidative activity. The study has also examined the chemopreventive property of the isolated compounds against human melanoma cells A375. The results shown that (−)-anonaine (1), (−)-liridinine (3), (+)-lirinidine (6), lysicamine (7) and epitulipinolide diepoxide (9) significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells. These results revealed that these compounds have antioxidative activity and chemopreventive activity in skin melanoma cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Ginsenoside Rb1 Protects Rat Neural Progenitor Cells against Oxidative Injury
Molecules 2014, 19(3), 3012-3024; doi:10.3390/molecules19033012
Received: 6 January 2014 / Revised: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 3 March 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (2516 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, has been used as a tonic to enhance bodily functions against various ailments for hundreds of years in Far Eastern countries without apparent adverse effects. Ginsenoside Rb1, one of the most active ingredients of ginseng,
[...] Read more.
Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, has been used as a tonic to enhance bodily functions against various ailments for hundreds of years in Far Eastern countries without apparent adverse effects. Ginsenoside Rb1, one of the most active ingredients of ginseng, has been shown to possess various pharmacological activities. Here we report that Rb1 exhibits potent neuroprotective effects against oxidative injury induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay demonstrated that incubation with 300 µm t-BHP for 2.5 h led to a significant cell loss of cultured rat embryonic cortex-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and the cell viability was pronouncedly increased by 24 h pretreatment of 10 µm Rb1. TUNEL staining further confirmed that pretreatment of Rb1 significantly reduced the cell apoptosis in t-BHP-induced oxidative injury. Real time PCR revealed that pretreatment with Rb1 activated Nrf2 pathway in cultured NPCs and led to an elevated expression of HO-1. The results of the present study demonstrate that Rb1 shows a potent anti-oxidative effect on cultured NPCs by activating Nrf2 pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Ursolic Acid-Enriched Herba Cynomorii Extract Induces Mitochondrial Uncoupling and Glutathione Redox Cycling Through Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Generation: Protection Against Menadione Cytotoxicity in H9c2 Cells
Molecules 2014, 19(2), 1576-1591; doi:10.3390/molecules19021576
Received: 2 December 2013 / Revised: 19 January 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (536 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Herba Cynomorii (Cynomorium songaricum Rupr., Cynomoriaceae) is one of the most commonly used ‘Yang-invigorating’ tonic herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). An earlier study in our laboratory has demonstrated that HCY2, an ursolic acid-enriched fraction derived from Herba Cynomorii, increased mitochondrial ATP
[...] Read more.
Herba Cynomorii (Cynomorium songaricum Rupr., Cynomoriaceae) is one of the most commonly used ‘Yang-invigorating’ tonic herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). An earlier study in our laboratory has demonstrated that HCY2, an ursolic acid-enriched fraction derived from Herba Cynomorii, increased mitochondrial ATP generation capacity (ATP-GC) and induced mitochondrial uncoupling as well as a cellular glutathione response, thereby protecting against oxidant injury in H9c2 cells. In this study, we demonstrated that pre-incubation of H9c2 cells with HCY2 increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in these cells, which is likely an event secondary to the stimulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The suppression of mitochondrial ROS by the antioxidant dimethylthiourea abrogated the HCY2-induced enhancement of mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione reductase (GR)-mediated glutathione redox cycling, and also protected against menadione-induced cytotoxicity. Studies using specific inhibitors of uncoupling protein and GR suggested that the HCY2-induced mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione redox cycling play a determining role in the cytoprotection against menadione-induced oxidant injury in H9c2 cells. Experimental evidence obtained thus far supports the causal role of HCY2-induced mitochondrial ROS production in eliciting mitochondrial uncoupling and glutathione antioxidant responses, which offer cytoprotection against oxidant injury in H9c2 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Figures

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Prevention of Protein Glycation by Natural Compounds
Molecules 2015, 20(2), 3309-3334; doi:10.3390/molecules20023309
Received: 17 December 2014 / Revised: 10 February 2015 / Accepted: 11 February 2015 / Published: 16 February 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (731 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Non-enzymatic protein glycosylation (glycation) contributes to many diseases and aging of organisms. It can be expected that inhibition of glycation may prolong the lifespan. The search for inhibitors of glycation, mainly using in vitro models, has identified natural compounds able to prevent glycation,
[...] Read more.
Non-enzymatic protein glycosylation (glycation) contributes to many diseases and aging of organisms. It can be expected that inhibition of glycation may prolong the lifespan. The search for inhibitors of glycation, mainly using in vitro models, has identified natural compounds able to prevent glycation, especially polyphenols and other natural antioxidants. Extrapolation of results of in vitro studies on the in vivo situation is not straightforward due to differences in the conditions and mechanism of glycation, and bioavailability problems. Nevertheless, available data allow to postulate that enrichment of diet in natural anti-glycating agents may attenuate glycation and, in consequence, ageing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Open AccessReview A Synergistic, Balanced Antioxidant Cocktail, Protects Aging Rats from Insulin Resistance and Absence of Meal-Induced Insulin Sensitization (AMIS) Syndrome
Molecules 2015, 20(1), 669-682; doi:10.3390/molecules20010669
Received: 1 December 2014 / Accepted: 26 December 2014 / Published: 6 January 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (811 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of in vivo and in vitro studies using animal and human models in the past 15 years have demonstrated that approximately 55% (~66% in humans) of the glucose disposal effect of an i.v. injection of insulin in the fed state is
[...] Read more.
A series of in vivo and in vitro studies using animal and human models in the past 15 years have demonstrated that approximately 55% (~66% in humans) of the glucose disposal effect of an i.v. injection of insulin in the fed state is dependent on the action of a second hormone, hepatic insulin sensitizing substance (HISS), which is released from the liver and stimulates glucose uptake in muscle, heart and kidneys. Sensitization of the insulin response by a meal through release of HISS is called meal-induced insulin sensitization (MIS). Absence of HISS action results in postprandial hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, adiposity, increased free radical stress and a cluster of progressive metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunctions referred to as the AMIS (absence of meal-induced insulin sensitization) syndrome. Reduced HISS release accounts for the insulin resistance that occurs with aging and is made worse by physical inactivity and diets high in sucrose or fat. This brief review provides an update of major metabolic disturbances associated with aging due to reduction of HISS release, and the protection against these pathological changes in aging animals using a balanced synergistic antioxidant cocktail SAMEC (S-adenosylmethionine, vitamins E and C). The synergy amongst the components is consistent with the known benefits of antioxidants supplied by a mixed diet and acting through diverse mechanisms. Using only three constituents, SAMEC appears suitable as an antioxidant specifically targeting the AMIS syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Figures

Open AccessReview Molecular and Chemical Regulation of the Keap1-Nrf2 Signaling Pathway
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 10074-10089; doi:10.3390/molecules190710074
Received: 11 May 2014 / Revised: 2 June 2014 / Accepted: 2 July 2014 / Published: 10 July 2014
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Extracellular and intracellular oxidants or electrophiles are key contributors to the damages in cellular macromolecules, such as DNA, proteins and lipids. Nrf2 is a master transcription factor that modulates a cellular antioxidant response program and plays an important role in the protection against
[...] Read more.
Extracellular and intracellular oxidants or electrophiles are key contributors to the damages in cellular macromolecules, such as DNA, proteins and lipids. Nrf2 is a master transcription factor that modulates a cellular antioxidant response program and plays an important role in the protection against oxidants and electrophiles. Keap1 is a regulator of Nrf2 by serving as a substrate adaptor for Cullin3-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase. While Nrf2 activation is a feasible strategy for treatment of age-related diseases, aberrant Nrf2 activation also confers a selective growth advantage of tumor cells during chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In the present review, we provide an overview of the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE system, the domain organization of Nrf2 and Keap1, and the regulatory mechanisms of Nrf2 proteolysis by Keap1. We also discuss how Nrf2 prevents tumor promotion, hampers the sensitivity of selected tumors against chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and reprograms the metabolism to facilitate the tumor proliferation. Finally, we illustrate the current status in the development of Nrf2 chemical activators and inhibitors for the use of potential chemopreventive agents and chemotherapeutic adjuvants, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Open AccessReview Role of Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins Derived from an Extract of Persimmon Fruits in the Oxidative Stress-Related Aging Process
Molecules 2014, 19(5), 6707-6726; doi:10.3390/molecules19056707
Received: 5 April 2014 / Revised: 19 May 2014 / Accepted: 19 May 2014 / Published: 22 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1513 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many researchers have focused on the oligomeric form of proanthocyanidins with a lower level of polymerization found in foodstuffs such as grape seeds and blackberries. The present study indicated that the oral administration of oligomers isolated from persimmon fruits extended the lifespan of
[...] Read more.
Many researchers have focused on the oligomeric form of proanthocyanidins with a lower level of polymerization found in foodstuffs such as grape seeds and blackberries. The present study indicated that the oral administration of oligomers isolated from persimmon fruits extended the lifespan of senescence-accelerated mouse prone/8 (SAMP8), a murine model of accelerated senescence. On the other hand, oligomer-treated SAMP8 did not show stereotypical behavior. We also revealed that the oral administration of oligomers improved spatial and object recognition memory in SAMP8. The density of axons in the hippocampal CA1 was significantly increased by oligomer administration. Moreover, the administration of oligomers increased the phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2 in the hippocampal CA3, hypothalamus, and choroid plexus. We speculate that memory improvement accompanied by histological changes may be induced directly in the hippocampus and indirectly in the hypothalamus and choroid plexus through VEGFR-2 signaling. In the present study, we elucidated the protective effect of oligomers against memory impairment with aging. VEGFR-2 signaling may provide a new insight into ways to protect against memory deficit in the aging brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
Figures

Open AccessReview Ultraviolet Radiation, Aging and the Skin: Prevention of Damage by Topical cAMP Manipulation
Molecules 2014, 19(5), 6202-6219; doi:10.3390/molecules19056202
Received: 26 April 2014 / Revised: 8 May 2014 / Accepted: 13 May 2014 / Published: 15 May 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (743 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Being the largest and most visible organ of the body and heavily influenced by environmental factors, skin is ideal to study the long-term effects of aging. Throughout our lifetime, we accumulate damage generated by UV radiation. UV causes inflammation, immune changes, physical changes,
[...] Read more.
Being the largest and most visible organ of the body and heavily influenced by environmental factors, skin is ideal to study the long-term effects of aging. Throughout our lifetime, we accumulate damage generated by UV radiation. UV causes inflammation, immune changes, physical changes, impaired wound healing and DNA damage that promotes cellular senescence and carcinogenesis. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and among the malignancies of highest increasing incidence over the last several decades. Melanoma incidence is directly related to age, with highest rates in individuals over the age of 55 years, making it a clear age-related disease. In this review, we will focus on UV-induced carcinogenesis and photo aging along with natural protective mechanisms that reduce amount of “realized” solar radiation dose and UV-induced injury. We will focus on the theoretical use of forskolin, a plant-derived pharmacologically active compound to protect the skin against UV injury and prevent aging symptoms by up-regulating melanin production. We will discuss its use as a topically-applied root-derived formulation of the Plectranthus barbatus (Coleus forskolii) plant that grows naturally in Asia and that has long been used in various Aryuvedic teas and therapeutic preparations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Molecules Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
molecules@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Molecules
Back to Top