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Molecules 2014, 19(11), 17400-17421; doi:10.3390/molecules191117400

HPLC-UV-MS Profiles of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Fruits from Three Citrus Species Consumed in Northern Chile

1
Laboratorio de Productos Naturales, Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, Av. Coloso S-N, Antofagasta 1240000, Chile
2
Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 7800024, Chile
3
Departamento de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Campus Viña del Mar, Quillota 980, Viña del Mar 2520000, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 August 2014 / Revised: 12 September 2014 / Accepted: 22 September 2014 / Published: 29 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
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Abstract

Peels and edible pulp from three species of citrus including Citrus aurantifolia (varieties pica and sutil) and Citrus x lemon var. Genova widely cultivated and consumed in Northern Chile (I and II region) were analyzed for phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity for the first time. A high performance electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-ESI-MS) method was developed for the rapid identification of phenolics in extracts from peels and juices of all species. Several flavonoids including one kaempferol-O-hexoside (peak 16) and one hesperidin derivative (peak 22) three quercetin derivatives (peaks 4, 19 and 36), five isorhamnetin derivatives (peaks 5, 23, 24, 26 and 29) four luteolin derivatives (peaks 14, 25, 27 and 40), seven apigenin derivatives (peaks 2, 3, 12, 20, 34, 35 and 39), seven diosmetin derivatives (peaks 79, 17, 21, 31 and 37), three chrysoeriol derivatives (peaks 10, 18 and 30), and four eryodictiol derivatives (peaks 6, 13, 15 and 38) were identified in negative and positive mode using full scan mass measurements and MSn fragmentations. Ascorbic acid content was higher in the pulps of the varieties Genova and Sutil (60.13 ± 1.28 and 56.53 ± 1.06 mg ascorbic acid per g dry weight, respectively) while total phenolic content was higher in Pica peels followed by Sutil peels (34.59 ± 0.81 and 25.58 ± 1.02 mg/g GAE dry weight, respectively). The antioxidant capacity was also higher for Pica peels (10.34 ± 1.23 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 120.63 ± 2.45 µM trolox equivalents/g dry weight in the FRAP assay). The antioxidant features together with the high polyphenolic contents can support at least in part, the usage of the peel extracts as nutraceutical supplements, especially to be used as anti-ageing products. View Full-Text
Keywords: endemic fruits; poliphenolics; quantitation; antioxidants; HPLC-MS; Pica lemon; Limón de Pica; chilean species endemic fruits; poliphenolics; quantitation; antioxidants; HPLC-MS; Pica lemon; Limón de Pica; chilean species
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Brito, A.; Ramirez, J.E.; Areche, C.; Sepúlveda, B.; Simirgiotis, M.J. HPLC-UV-MS Profiles of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Fruits from Three Citrus Species Consumed in Northern Chile. Molecules 2014, 19, 17400-17421.

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