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Molecules 2014, 19(5), 6707-6726; doi:10.3390/molecules19056707
Review

Role of Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins Derived from an Extract of Persimmon Fruits in the Oxidative Stress-Related Aging Process

1,* , 2, 3 and 2
1 Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555, Japan 2 College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Suseong-gu, Daegu 706-060, Korea 3 Department of Food Science & Nutrition, Tongmyong University, Nam-gu, Busan 608-711, Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 April 2014 / Revised: 19 May 2014 / Accepted: 19 May 2014 / Published: 22 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
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Abstract

Many researchers have focused on the oligomeric form of proanthocyanidins with a lower level of polymerization found in foodstuffs such as grape seeds and blackberries. The present study indicated that the oral administration of oligomers isolated from persimmon fruits extended the lifespan of senescence-accelerated mouse prone/8 (SAMP8), a murine model of accelerated senescence. On the other hand, oligomer-treated SAMP8 did not show stereotypical behavior. We also revealed that the oral administration of oligomers improved spatial and object recognition memory in SAMP8. The density of axons in the hippocampal CA1 was significantly increased by oligomer administration. Moreover, the administration of oligomers increased the phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2 in the hippocampal CA3, hypothalamus, and choroid plexus. We speculate that memory improvement accompanied by histological changes may be induced directly in the hippocampus and indirectly in the hypothalamus and choroid plexus through VEGFR-2 signaling. In the present study, we elucidated the protective effect of oligomers against memory impairment with aging. VEGFR-2 signaling may provide a new insight into ways to protect against memory deficit in the aging brain.
Keywords: oligomer; SAMP8; lifespan; stereotypical behavior; memory; VEGFR-2 oligomer; SAMP8; lifespan; stereotypical behavior; memory; VEGFR-2
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Yokozawa, T.; Park, C.H.; Noh, J.S.; Roh, S.S. Role of Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins Derived from an Extract of Persimmon Fruits in the Oxidative Stress-Related Aging Process. Molecules 2014, 19, 6707-6726.

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