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Molecules 2015, 20(2), 1904-1921; doi:10.3390/molecules20021904

Ameliorating the Effect of Astragaloside IV on Learning and Memory Deficit after Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion in Rats

Department of East-West Medical Science, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 12 January 2015 / Published: 23 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
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Abstract

Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) has been reported to have a prominent antioxidant effect and was proposed as a promising agent for the prevention of neurodegenerative disorders accompanied by cognitive impairment. The present study investigated the ameliorating effect of AS-IV on learning and memory deficits induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats. Rats were treated with two doses of AS-IV (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 28 days starting from the 5th week after permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. AS-IV treatment (at dose of 20 mg/kg) significantly improved the spatial learning and memory deficits assessed using the Morris water maze test in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. AS-IV significantly attenuated neuronal apoptosis as well as the levels of superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxidation markers, including malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, in the hippocampus. AS-IV also significantly reduced 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine expression, a maker of oxidative DNA damage, while significantly inhibited the astrocyte and microglia activation in the hippocampus. The results indicate that AS-IV has therapeutic potential for the prevention of dementia caused by cerebral hypoperfusion and suggest that the ameliorating effect of AS-IV on learning and memory deficits might be the result of suppressing neuronal apoptosis and oxidative damage in the hippocampus. View Full-Text
Keywords: astragaloside IV; cerebral hypoperfusion; memory impairment; neuronal apoptosis; oxidative damage; glial activation astragaloside IV; cerebral hypoperfusion; memory impairment; neuronal apoptosis; oxidative damage; glial activation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kim, S.; Kang, I.-H.; Nam, J.-B.; Cho, Y.; Chung, D.-Y.; Kim, S.-H.; Kim, J.-S.; Cho, Y.-D.; Hong, E.-K.; Sohn, N.-W.; Shin, J.-W. Ameliorating the Effect of Astragaloside IV on Learning and Memory Deficit after Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion in Rats. Molecules 2015, 20, 1904-1921.

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