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Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20498-20520; doi:10.3390/molecules191220498

Polyphenolic Profile, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Eastern Teaberry (Gaultheria procumbens L.) Leaf Extracts

1
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lodz, 1 Muszyńskiego St., Lodz 90-151, Poland
2
Department of Pharmacognosy and Molecular Basis of Phytotherapy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Warsaw Medical University, 1 Banacha St., Warsaw 02-097, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 November 2014 / Revised: 28 November 2014 / Accepted: 1 December 2014 / Published: 8 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antioxidants and Ageing)
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Abstract

Dry leaf extracts of eastern teaberry (Gaultheria procumbens L.) were evaluated as a source of bioactive phytocompounds through systematic activity testing and phytochemical profiling. The antioxidant efficiency was tested using five complementary in vitro models (DPPH; FRAP; linoleic acid (LA) peroxidation assay; O2•− and H2O2 scavenging tests) in parallel with standard antioxidants. The 75% methanol extract and its diethyl ether, ethyl acetate (EAF), n-butanol and water fractions exhibited the dose-dependent responses in all assays, with the highest capacities found for EAF (DPPH EC50 = 2.9 μg/mL; FRAP = 12.8 mmol Fe2+/g; IC50 for LA-peroxidation = 123.9 μg/mL; O2•− SC50 = 3.9 μg/mL; H2O2 SC50 = 7.2 μg/mL). The EAF had also the highest anti-inflammatory activity in the inhibition tests of lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase (60.14% and 21.83% effects, respectively, at the concentration of 100 μg/mL). Activity parameters of the extracts correlated strongly with the levels of total phenolics (72.4–270.7 mg GAE/g), procyanidins, and phenolic acids, whereas for flavonoids only moderate effects were observed. Comprehensive UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS3 and HPLC-PDA studies led to the identification of 35 polyphenols with a procyanidin A-type trimer, quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, isomers of caffeoylquinic acids, and (‒)-epicatechin being the dominant components. Significant activity levels, high phenolic contents and high extraction yields (39.4%–42.5% DW for defatted and crude methanol extracts, respectively) indicate the value of eastern teaberry leaves as bioactive products. View Full-Text
Keywords: Gaultheria procumbens L.; antioxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity; UHPLC-MS; HPLC-PDA; phenolic content; phenolic profile; proanthocyanidins; chlorogenic acids; flavonoids Gaultheria procumbens L.; antioxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity; UHPLC-MS; HPLC-PDA; phenolic content; phenolic profile; proanthocyanidins; chlorogenic acids; flavonoids
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Michel, P.; Dobrowolska, A.; Kicel, A.; Owczarek, A.; Bazylko, A.; Granica, S.; Piwowarski, J.P.; Olszewska, M.A. Polyphenolic Profile, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Eastern Teaberry (Gaultheria procumbens L.) Leaf Extracts. Molecules 2014, 19, 20498-20520.

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