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Special Issue "Mycotoxins: Mechanisms of Toxicological Activity - Treatment and Prevention"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2008)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Vesna Jacevic

National Poison Control Centre, Military Medical Academy, Crnotravska 17, 11002 Belgrade, Republic of Serbia
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

By the mid-twentieth century, it was proved that mycotoxins were cause of sporadic, spontaneous and severe intoxications in humans and animals through the world. The toxic effects of mycotoxins on human health are complex and little understood. Furthermore, in warm, humid developing countries, regular mycotoxin presence in the diet affects human populations and domesticated animals, causing morbidity and premature deaths. Toxicological characteristics of mycotoxins (significant persistence in the environment, cheap manufacture and difficult detection) were studied extensively worldwide throughout the 20th century, but the exact mechanisms of their actions, as well as specific antidotes, are not known so far. In this special issue, original reaserch findings and review articles with regards to the mechanisms, treatment and prevention of mycotoxins are considered for publication.

Dr. Vesna Jacevic
Guest Editor

Leading Papers and Reviews

  • Bennett, J.W.; Klich, M. Mycotoxins. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2003, 16, 497-516.
  • Chivasa, S.; Ndimba, B.K.; Simon, W.J.; Lindsey, K.; Slabas, A.R. Extracellular ATP functions as an endogenous external metabolite regulating plant cell viability. Plant Cell 2005, 17, 3019-3034.
  • Chu, F.S. Trichothecene mycotoxicoses. Encyclop. Hum. Biol. 1997, 8, 511-522.
  • Creppy, E.E. Human ochratoxicosis. J. Toxicol. Toxin. Rev. 1999, 18, 277-293.
  • Etzel, R.A. Mycotoxins. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 2002, 287, 425-427.
  • Hedayati, M.T.; Pasqualotto, A.C.; Warn, P.A.; Bowyer, P.; Denning, D.W. Aspergillus flavus: human pathogen, allergen and mycotoxin producer. Microbiol. 2007, 153, 1677-1692.
  • Josephs, R.D.; Derbyshire, M.; Stroka, J.; Emons, H.; Anklam, E. Trichothecenes: reference materials and method validation. Toxicol. Lett. 2004, 153, 123-132.
  • Kemppainen, B.W.; Riley, R.T.; Pace, J.G. Skin absorption as a route of exposure for aflatoxin and trichothecenes. J. Toxicol. Toxin. Rev. 1988-89, 7, 95-120.
  • Krska, R.; Baumgartner, S.; Josephs, R. Review: The state-of-art in the analysis of type-A and -B trichothecene mycotoxins in cereals. J. Anal. Chem. 2001, 71, 285-299.
  • Larsen, J.C.; Hunt, J.; Perrin, I.; Ruckenbauer, P. Workshop on trichothecenes with a focus on DON: summary report. Toxicol. Lett. 2004, 153, 1-22.
  • Moon, Y.; Pestka, J.J. Vomitoxin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in macrophages mediated by activation of ERK and p38 but not JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases. Toxicol. Sci. 2002, 69, 373-382.
  • Parent-Massin. D.; Parchment. R. Hematotoxicity of mycotoxins. Rev. Med. Vet. 1998, 149, 591-598.
  • Parent-Massin, D. Haematotoxicity of trichothecenes. Toxicol. Lett. 2004, 153, 75-81.
  • Pestka, J.J.; Zhou, H.R. Interleukin-6-deficient mice refractory to IgA dysregulation but not anorexia induction by vomitoxin ingestion. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2000, 38, 565-575.
  • Pestka, J.J.; Zhou, H.R.; Moon, Y.; Chung, Y.J. Cellular and molecular mechanisms for immune modulation by deoxynivalenol and other trichothecenes: unraveling a paradox. Toxicol. Lett. 2004, 153, 61-73.
  • Schlatter, J. Toxicity data relevant for hazard characterization. Toxicol. Lett. 2004, 153, 83-89.
  • Speijers, G.J.A.; Speijers, M.H.M. Combined toxic effects of mycotoxins. Toxicol. Lett. 2004, 153, 918.
  • Sudakin, D.L. Trichothecenes in the environment: relevance to human health. Toxicol. Lett. 2003, 143, 97-107.
  • Pestka, J.J.; Smolinski, A.T. Deoxynivalenol: Toxicology and potential effects on humans. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health B Crit. Rev. 2005, 8 39-69.

Keywords

  • acute intoxications
  • aflatoxin
  • alimentary disorders
  • analytic methods
  • antagonism of mycotoxins
  • antidotes
  • apoptosis
  • carcinogenicity of mycotoxins
  • chemical stability
  • chronic intoxications
  • dermal effects
  • cardiotoxicity
  • diagnosis
  • DNA alterations
  • mitohondrial alteration
  • food safety
  • gene expression
  • haematoxicity
  • Hazard analysis
  • hepatotoxicity
  • humans
  • immunotoxicity
  • in vitro and in vivo tests
  • laboratory animals
  • domestic animals
  • macrocyclic trichothecenes
  • medical treatment
  • necrosis
  • nephrotoxicity
  • ochratoxin
  • penicillium
  • prevention
  • synergism of mycotoxins
  • combination toxicology
  • zearalenone

Published Papers (34 papers)

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Open AccessArticle Mycotoxin Detection in Human Samples from Patients Exposed to Environmental Molds
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(4), 1465-1475; doi:10.3390/ijms10041465
Received: 4 February 2009 / Revised: 13 March 2009 / Accepted: 27 March 2009 / Published: 1 April 2009
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (85 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The goal of this study was to determine if selected mycotoxins (trichothecenes, aflatoxins, and ochratoxins) could be extracted and identified in human tissue and body fluids from patients exposed to toxin producing molds in their environment. Human urine and methanol extracted tissues and
[...] Read more.
The goal of this study was to determine if selected mycotoxins (trichothecenes, aflatoxins, and ochratoxins) could be extracted and identified in human tissue and body fluids from patients exposed to toxin producing molds in their environment. Human urine and methanol extracted tissues and sputum were examined. Trichothecenes were tested using competitive ELISA techniques. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, and ochratoxin A were tested by using immunoaffinity columns and fluorometry. Test sensitivity and specificity were determined. Levels of detection for the various mycotoxins varied from 0.2 ppb for trichothecenes, 1.0 ppb for aflatoxins, and 2.0 ppb for ochratoxins. Trichothecene levels varied in urine, sputum, and tissue biopsies (lung, liver, brain) from undetectable (<0.2 ppb) to levels up to 18 ppb. Aflatoxin levels from the same types of tissues varied from 1.0 to 5.0 ppb. Ochratoxins isolated in the same type of tissues varied from 2.0 ppb to > 10.0 ppb. Negative control patients had no detectable mycotoxins in their tissues or fluids. These data show that mycotoxins can be detected in body fluids and human tissue from patients exposed to mycotoxin producing molds in the environment, and demonstrate which human tissues or fluids are the most likely to yield positive results. Full article
Open AccessArticle Changes in Metallothionein Level in Rat Hepatic Tissue after Administration of Natural Mouldy Wheat
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(3), 1138-1160; doi:10.3390/ijms10031138
Received: 3 January 2009 / Revised: 28 February 2009 / Accepted: 9 March 2009 / Published: 12 March 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (644 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by microfungi that are capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. This work was aimed at investigation of influence of mouldy wheat contaminated by pathogenic fungi producing mycotoxins on metallothionein levels in hepatic tissue
[...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by microfungi that are capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. This work was aimed at investigation of influence of mouldy wheat contaminated by pathogenic fungi producing mycotoxins on metallothionein levels in hepatic tissue of rats. The rats were administrating feed mixtures with different contents of vitamins or naturally mouldy wheat for 28 days. It was found that the wheat contained deoxynivalenol (80 ± 5 µg per kg of mouldy wheat), zearalenone (56 ± 3 µg/kg), T2-toxin (20 ± 2 µg/kg) and aflatoxins as a sum of B1, B2, G1 and G2 (3.9 ± 0.2 µg/kg). Rats were fed diets containing 0, 33, 66 and 100% naturally moulded wheat. Control group 0, 33, 66 and 100% contained vitamins according to Nutrient Requirements of Rats (NRC). Other four groups (control group with vitamins, vit33, vit66 and vit100%) were fed on the same levels of mouldy wheat, also vitamins at levels 100% higher than the previous mixtures. We determined weight, feed conversion and performed dissection to observe pathological processes. Changes between control group and experimental groups exposed to influence of mouldy wheat and experimental groups supplemented by higher concentration of vitamins and mouldy wheat were not observed. Livers were sampled and did not demonstrate significant changes in morphology compared to control either. In the following experiments the levels of metallothionein as a marker of oxidative stress was determined. We observed a quite surprising trend in metallothionein levels in animals supplemented with increased concentration of vitamins. Its level enhanced with increasing content of mouldy wheat. It was possible to determine a statistically significant decline (p<0.05) between control group and groups of animals fed with 33, 66 and 100% mouldy wheat. It is likely that some mycotoxins presented in mouldy wheat are able to block the mechanism of metallothionein synthesis. Full article
Open AccessArticle Investigation on the Protective Effect of α-Mannan against the DNA Damage Induced by Aflatoxin B1 in Mouse Hepatocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(2), 395-406; doi:10.3390/ijms10020395
Received: 21 November 2008 / Revised: 5 January 2009 / Accepted: 6 January 2009 / Published: 1 February 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (363 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aflatoxin B1 is a contaminant of agricultural and dairy products that can be related to mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. In this report we explore the capacity of α-mannan (Man) to reduce the DNA damage induced by AFB1 in mouse hepatocytes. For
[...] Read more.
Aflatoxin B1 is a contaminant of agricultural and dairy products that can be related to mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. In this report we explore the capacity of α-mannan (Man) to reduce the DNA damage induced by AFB1 in mouse hepatocytes. For this purpose we applied the comet assay to groups of animals which were first administered Man (100, 400 and 700 mg/kg, respectively) and 20 min later 1.0 mg/kg of AFB1. Liver cells were obtained at 4, 10, and 16 h after the chemical administration and examined. The results showed no protection of the damage induced by AFB1 with the low dose of the polysaccharide, but they did reveal antigenotoxic activity exerted by the two high doses. In addition, we induced a co-crystallization between both compounds, determined their fusion points and analyzed the molecules by UV spectroscopy. The obtained data suggested the formation of a supramolecular complex between AFB1 and Man. Full article
Open AccessArticle Determination of Aflatoxins in Peanut Products in the Northeast Region of São Paulo, Brazil
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 174-183; doi:10.3390/ijms10010174
Received: 5 November 2008 / Revised: 10 December 2008 / Accepted: 29 December 2008 / Published: 6 January 2009
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (132 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to determine aflatoxin levels in peanut products traded in the Northeast region of São Paulo, Brazil. To this end, 240 samples of peanut products traded in the cities of Araras, Leme, Pirassununga and Porto Ferreira were
[...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to determine aflatoxin levels in peanut products traded in the Northeast region of São Paulo, Brazil. To this end, 240 samples of peanut products traded in the cities of Araras, Leme, Pirassununga and Porto Ferreira were collected from June 2006 to May 2007. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed 44.2% samples positive for AF at levels of 0.5 to 103.8 mg·kg-1. Nine of the positive samples (3.7% of the analysed samples) had total aflatoxin concentrations (B1+B2+G1+G2) higher than the limit established by Brazilian regulations (20 mg·kg-1). Based on the above data, the probable mean daily intake (PDIM) of aflatoxins from peanut products in the Northeast region of São Paulo was estimated to be 0.23 ng kg b.w. day-1. Although this PDIM value was relatively low, results indicate that aflatoxin contamination of peanut products may be a public health concern in Brazil, when considering the potential exposure of highly susceptible consumers. For example, it should be emphasized that children are potentially exposed to aflatoxins, since they consume large quantities of peanut candies, and these products had the highest number of samples positive for AFB1. Full article
Open AccessArticle Impact of Deoxynivalenol on the Intestinal Microflora of Pigs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 1-17; doi:10.3390/ijms10010001
Received: 6 November 2008 / Revised: 22 December 2008 / Accepted: 24 December 2008 / Published: 27 December 2008
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species, is a frequent contaminant of cereal. In the present study, 24 weanling piglets received either control feed or feed naturally contaminated with DON (2.8 mg/kg) for four weeks. Consumption of contaminated feed significantly reduced
[...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species, is a frequent contaminant of cereal. In the present study, 24 weanling piglets received either control feed or feed naturally contaminated with DON (2.8 mg/kg) for four weeks. Consumption of contaminated feed significantly reduced the animal weight gain during the first week of the experiment, but had a moderate effect on cultivable bacteria in the pig intestine. By contrast, changes in the intestinal microflora were observed by Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Stranded Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP) in DON-exposed animals, suggesting an impact of this toxin on the dynamics of intestinal bacteria communities. Full article
Open AccessArticle Developmental Toxicity of Ochratoxin A in Rat Embryo Midbrain Micromass Cultures
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 37-49; doi:10.3390/ijms10010037
Received: 5 November 2008 / Revised: 15 December 2008 / Accepted: 18 December 2008 / Published: 27 December 2008
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Embryonic midbrain micromass cultures were exposed for five days to ochratoxin A (OTA) at seven concentrations (ranging from 0.16 to 10 ?g/mL). Cell viability was assessed in neutral red uptake test (NRU), and differentiation - by immunoenzymatic determination of structural proteins (?III-tubulin, MAP2,
[...] Read more.
Embryonic midbrain micromass cultures were exposed for five days to ochratoxin A (OTA) at seven concentrations (ranging from 0.16 to 10 ?g/mL). Cell viability was assessed in neutral red uptake test (NRU), and differentiation - by immunoenzymatic determination of structural proteins (?III-tubulin, MAP2, GFAP) expression level as well as by computer image analysis. Dose dependent decrease in cell number and differentiation was observed. Concentration-response curves were analysed and the mean inhibition concentrations (?g/mL) for cytotoxicity (IC50) and differentiation (ID50) were calculated. There were no significant differences in the sensitivity of neurons in early and late stage of differentiation and astrocytes to the toxic activity of this compound. For all endpoints ID50 value was very low (< 10 ?g/mL) so OTA was classified as a strong teratogen. IC50/ ID50 ratios <2 pointed out that with harmful action of OTA the basic cytotoxicity should be connected. Full article
Open AccessArticle Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products in Southern Italy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(12), 2614-2621; doi:10.3390/ijms9122614
Received: 27 October 2008 / Revised: 5 December 2008 / Accepted: 10 December 2008 / Published: 12 December 2008
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy). Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term
[...] Read more.
A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy). Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM1 was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM1 in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM1 threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Mechanisms of T-2 Toxin Toxicity Using Yeast DNA Microarrays
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(12), 2585-2600; doi:10.3390/ijms9122585
Received: 23 October 2008 / Revised: 8 December 2008 / Accepted: 10 December 2008 / Published: 11 December 2008
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin that belongs to a group of type A tricothecenes found in agricultural products. The cytotoxicity of T-2 toxin was characterized by analysis of the yeast transcriptome upon challenge with T-2 toxin. Interestingly, T-2 toxin-induced yeast gene expression profiles
[...] Read more.
T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin that belongs to a group of type A tricothecenes found in agricultural products. The cytotoxicity of T-2 toxin was characterized by analysis of the yeast transcriptome upon challenge with T-2 toxin. Interestingly, T-2 toxin-induced yeast gene expression profiles were found to be similar to profiles obtained following cycloheximide treatment. Moreover, T-2 toxin treatment was found to activate facilitators, gluconeogenesis and cell arrest related genes such as mitogen-activated protein kinase genes (FUS3). T-2 toxin attacks the membrane and as a result the membrane transport system was disturbed. A large number of genes are induced to restore the toxicity caused by T-2 toxin. However, the data did not suggest that DNA damage by alkylation (Mag1, a gene 3-methyl-adenine DNA glycosylase, 0.46-fold down regulated), no induction of DNA repair mechanisms such as recombination (RAD26, RAD52 and etc.) and excision repair (RAD7, RAD14, RAD16, RAD23 and etc.). These results suggested that the toxicity of the T-2 toxin was due to the disturbance of the cell membrane of the yeast cell and that T-2 toxin caused mild mutagenesis. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Nutritional Approach for the Management of Deoxynivalenol (DON) Toxicity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Growing Chickens
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(12), 2505-2514; doi:10.3390/ijms9122505
Received: 16 October 2008 / Revised: 20 November 2008 / Accepted: 3 December 2008 / Published: 8 December 2008
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (116 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has been shown that DON has negative effects on the active transport of some nutrients in the small intestine of chickens. The plausible interactions between food contaminants and natural components could be high. The present study investigated the effects of DON on
[...] Read more.
It has been shown that DON has negative effects on the active transport of some nutrients in the small intestine of chickens. The plausible interactions between food contaminants and natural components could be high. The present study investigated the effects of DON on the presence or absence of dietary inulin on the electrophysiological response of the gut to glucose. Ussing chamber studies were conducted with isolated jejunal epithelia at the age of 35 days. Electrophysiology of the epithelia was recorded and the changes of the short-circuit current (Isc) were determined. The addition of Dglucose on the luminal side of the isolated mucosa increased (P < 0.05) the Isc in the control group and inulin supplemented group. The oligosaccharides did not increase glucose absorption in young healthy chickens compared with the controls. In the second experiment, after preincubation of tissues with DON, the addition of glucose did not increase the Isc in jejunum and colon in the control group (P > 0.05). However, in the dietary inulin supplemented group in both jejunum and colon, the addition of glucose after preincubation of tissues with DON increased the Isc, suggesting that the dietary inulin supplementation of the broilers regulated and improved the glucose absorption in the presence of DON and kept it at normal levels. Full article
Open AccessArticle Development of a Generic PCR Detection of 3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol-, 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol- and Nivalenol-Chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum Clade
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(12), 2495-2504; doi:10.3390/ijms9122495
Received: 6 November 2008 / Revised: 20 November 2008 / Accepted: 3 December 2008 / Published: 5 December 2008
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (117 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fusarium graminearum clade pathogens cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab of wheat and other small cereal grains, producing different kinds of trichothecene mycotoxins that are detrimental to human and domestic animals. Type B trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-AcDON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-AcDON)
[...] Read more.
Fusarium graminearum clade pathogens cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab of wheat and other small cereal grains, producing different kinds of trichothecene mycotoxins that are detrimental to human and domestic animals. Type B trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-AcDON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-AcDON) and nivalenol (NIV) are the principal Fusarium mycotoxins reported in China, as well as in other countries. A genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to predict chemotypes was developed based on the structural gene sequences of Tri13 genes involved in trichothecene mycotoxin biosynthesis pathways. A single pair of primers derived from the Tri13 genes detected a 583 bp fragment from 15-AcDON-chemotypes, a 644 bp fragment from 3-AcDON-chemotypes and an 859 bp fragment from NIV-producing strains. Fusarium strains from China, Nepal, USA and Europe were identified by this method, revealing their mycotoxin chemotypes identical to that obtained by chemical analyses of HPLC or GC/MS and other PCR assays. The mycotoxin chemotype-specific fragments were amplified from a highly variable region located in Tri13 genes with three deletions for 15-AcDON-chemotypes, two deletions for 3-AcDON-chemotypes and no deletion for NIV-producers. This PCR assay generated a single amplicon and thus should be more reliable than other PCR-based assays that showed the absence or presence of a PCR fragment since these assays may generate false-negative results. The results with strains from several different countries as well as from different hosts further indicated that this method should be globally applicable. This is a rapid, reliable and cost-effective method for the identification of type B trichothecene mycotoxin chemotypes in Fusarium species and food safety controls. Full article
Open AccessArticle Isolation and Identification of a Strain of Aspergillus Tubingensis With Deoxynivalenol Biotransformation Capability
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(12), 2366-2375; doi:10.3390/ijms9122366
Received: 14 June 2008 / Revised: 13 November 2008 / Accepted: 25 November 2008 / Published: 27 November 2008
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (612 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common contaminants of various foodstuffs. A biotransformation system was used in order to lessen the toxicity of DON. A strain of Aspergillus (NJA-1) was isolated from soil and cultured in an inorganic salt medium containing DON.
[...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common contaminants of various foodstuffs. A biotransformation system was used in order to lessen the toxicity of DON. A strain of Aspergillus (NJA-1) was isolated from soil and cultured in an inorganic salt medium containing DON. Bt2a/Bt2b primers were used to amplify the β-tubulin gene of NJA-1. Sequence analysis the PCR product and morphology observation indicated that NJA-1 belonged to Aspergillus tubingensis (aerobic fungi). The DNA sequence information of the PCR product was deposited in GenBank (accession number DQ9025790). The DNA sequence had 99% similarity to the Aspergillus tubingensis accession number AY820009. An unknown compound in NJA-1 showed the ability to convert DON into another product. The molecular weight of the bioconversion product was 18.1 D (H2O) larger than that of DON. The analysis showed that DON could be hydrolyzed by NJA-1. The mean DON biotransformation rate was 94.4% after two weeks of cultivation. The finding presents a new method for DON biotransformation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Growth and Mycotoxin Production by Chaetomium globosum Is Favored in a Neutral pH
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(12), 2357-2365; doi:10.3390/ijms9122357
Received: 17 September 2008 / Revised: 31 October 2008 / Accepted: 25 November 2008 / Published: 26 November 2008
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (163 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chaetomium globosum is frequently isolated in water-damaged buildings and produces two mycotoxins called chaetoglobosins A and C when cultured on building material. In this study, the influence of ambient pH on the growth of C. globosum was examined on an artificial medium. This
[...] Read more.
Chaetomium globosum is frequently isolated in water-damaged buildings and produces two mycotoxins called chaetoglobosins A and C when cultured on building material. In this study, the influence of ambient pH on the growth of C. globosum was examined on an artificial medium. This fungus was capable of growth on potato dextrose agar ranging in pH from 4.3 to 9.4 with optimal growth and chaetoglobosin C production occurring at a neutral pH. In addition, our results show that sporulation is favored in an acidic environment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Upscaled CTAB-Based DNA Extraction and Real-Time PCR Assays for Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum DNA in Plant Material with Reduced Sampling Error
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(11), 2306-2321; doi:10.3390/ijms9112306
Received: 28 August 2008 / Revised: 19 November 2008 / Accepted: 24 November 2008 / Published: 25 November 2008
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (362 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (Gibberella zeae Schwein. Petch.) and F. culmorum W.G. Smith are major mycotoxin producers in small-grain cereals afflicted with Fusarium head blight (FHB). Real-time PCR (qPCR) is the method of choice for species-specific, quantitative estimation of fungal biomass in plant
[...] Read more.
Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (Gibberella zeae Schwein. Petch.) and F. culmorum W.G. Smith are major mycotoxin producers in small-grain cereals afflicted with Fusarium head blight (FHB). Real-time PCR (qPCR) is the method of choice for species-specific, quantitative estimation of fungal biomass in plant tissue. We demonstrated that increasing the amount of plant material used for DNA extraction to 0.5-1.0 g considerably reduced sampling error and improved the reproducibility of DNA yield. The costs of DNA extraction at different scales and with different methods (commercial kits versus cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-based protocol) and qPCR systems (doubly labeled hybridization probes versus SYBR Green) were compared. A cost-effective protocol for the quantification of F. graminearum and F. culmorum DNA in wheat grain and maize stalk debris based on DNA extraction from 0.5-1.0 g material and real-time PCR with SYBR Green fluorescence detection was developed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Intestinal Structure and Function of Broiler Chickens on Diets Supplemented with a Synbiotic Containing Enterococcus faecium and Oligosaccharides
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(11), 2205-2216; doi:10.3390/ijms9112205
Received: 16 September 2008 / Revised: 31 October 2008 / Accepted: 7 November 2008 / Published: 12 November 2008
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (124 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A feeding trial was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of the synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO [a combination of Enterococcus faecium, a prebiotic (derived from chicory) and immune modulating substances (derived from sea algae)], with a dose of 1 kg/ton of
[...] Read more.
A feeding trial was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of the synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO [a combination of Enterococcus faecium, a prebiotic (derived from chicory) and immune modulating substances (derived from sea algae)], with a dose of 1 kg/ton of the starter diets and 0.5 kg/ton of the grower diets on the intestinal morphometry and nutrient absorption. The general performance was improved (P < 0.05) by the dietary inclusion of synbiotic compared with the controls. Furthermore, the addition of synbiotic increased (P < 0.001) the villus height/crypt depth ratio and villus height in ileum. However, the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementation of synbiotic compared with control. The addition of glucose in Ussing chamber produced a significant increase (P ≤ 0.001) in short-circuit current (Isc) in jejunum and colon relative to the basal values in both synbiotic and control groups. However, in jejunum the percentage of Isc increase after glucose addition was higher for synbiotic group (333 %) than control group (45 %). In conclusion, dietary inclusion of synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO increased the growth performance and improved intestinal morphology and nutrient absorption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Survey of Slaughtered Pigs for Occurrence of Ochratoxin A and Porcine Nephropathy in Serbia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(11), 2169-2183; doi:10.3390/ijms9112169
Received: 19 March 2008 / Revised: 29 October 2008 / Accepted: 31 October 2008 / Published: 7 November 2008
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Samples of blood, kidney and liver were randomly selected from slaughtered pigs (n=90) and analyzed for ochratoxin A by HPLC. In addition, in order to obtain information on the occurrence of nephropathy, histological examinations were carried out. Of the 90 liver samples, 26.6%
[...] Read more.
Samples of blood, kidney and liver were randomly selected from slaughtered pigs (n=90) and analyzed for ochratoxin A by HPLC. In addition, in order to obtain information on the occurrence of nephropathy, histological examinations were carried out. Of the 90 liver samples, 26.6% contained OTA in the range of 0.22-14.5 ng/g. The incidence of OTA in serum and kidney were very similar (31%, 33.3%), with a maximum concentration of 220.8 ng/mL, and 52.5 ng/g, respectively. Histopathological examination of kidneys confirmed tubulopathies with edema and cell vacuolization. In addition, hemorrhages and necrosis of proximal kidney tubules’ cells were found. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol in Maize and Wheat in Serbia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(11), 2114-2126; doi:10.3390/ijms9112114
Received: 21 July 2008 / Revised: 25 September 2008 / Accepted: 27 September 2008 / Published: 4 November 2008
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A total of 226 samples of maize and 59 of wheat from the 2004−2007 harvests were investigated for the presence and concentration of deoxynivalenol (DON). Samples of the 2004 harvest were analyzed after their storing for one year in barns, while those of
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A total of 226 samples of maize and 59 of wheat from the 2004−2007 harvests were investigated for the presence and concentration of deoxynivalenol (DON). Samples of the 2004 harvest were analyzed after their storing for one year in barns, while those of the 2005−2007 harvest were taken directly off fields immediately after the harvest. The samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography on an ODS Hypersil column with DAD detector and ELISA methods. The average incidence rate of DON in maize from the 2004 harvest was 50% (concentration range 0.042−2.460 mg/kg, average value 0.536 mg/kg), while for those of the 2005−2007 harvest it was 32.4% (concentration range 0.027−2.210 mg/kg, average value 0.223 mg/kg). In the case of wheat incidence rate of DON for 2004 harvest was 50.0% (concentration range 0.630−1.840 mg/kg, average value 1.235 mg/kg), while for those of the 2005−2007 harvest it was 34.5% (concentration range 0.057−0.423 mg/kg, average value 0.190 mg/kg). Concentrations in two samples of maize and one of wheat (one sample of each cereal being of the 2004 harvest) were above the maximum level adopted by the European Commission. The results obtained were analyzed as a function of climatic conditions and compared with those of the neighboring countries where the relevant data existed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Aspergillus parasiticus crzA, Which Encodes Calcineurin Response Zinc-Finger Protein, Is Required for Aflatoxin Production under Calcium Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(10), 2027-2043; doi:10.3390/ijms9102027
Received: 16 September 2008 / Revised: 27 October 2008 / Accepted: 28 October 2008 / Published: 29 October 2008
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (737 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two morphologically different Aspergillus parasiticus strains, one producing aflatoxins, abundant conidia but few sclerotia (BN9) and the other producing O-methylsterimatocystin (OMST), copious sclerotia but a low number of conidia (RH), were used to assess the role of crzA which encodes a putative calcium-signaling
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Two morphologically different Aspergillus parasiticus strains, one producing aflatoxins, abundant conidia but few sclerotia (BN9) and the other producing O-methylsterimatocystin (OMST), copious sclerotia but a low number of conidia (RH), were used to assess the role of crzA which encodes a putative calcium-signaling pathway regulatory protein. Under standard culture conditions, BN9ΔcrzA mutants conidiated normally but decreased slightly in radial growth, regardless of illumination conditions. RHΔcrzA mutants produced only conidia under light and showed decreased conidiation and delayed sclerotial formation in the dark. Regulation of conidiation of both A. parasiticus strains by light was independent of crzA. Increased concentrations of lithium, sodium, and potassium impaired conidiation and sclerotial formation of the RHΔcrzA mutants but they did not affect conidiation of the BN9ΔcrzA mutants. Vegetative growth and asexual development of both ΔcrzA mutants were hypersensitive to increased calcium concentrations. Calcium supplementation (10 mM) resulted in 3-fold and 2-fold decreases in the relative expression of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 gene in the BN9 and RH parental strains, respectively, but changes in both ΔcrzA mutants were less significant. Compared to the parental strains, the ΔcrzA mutants barely produced aflatoxins or OMST after the calcium supplementation. The relative expression levels of aflatoxin biosynthesis genes, nor1, ver1, and omtA, in both ΔcrzA mutants were decreased significantly, but the decreases in the parental strains were at much lower extents. CrzA is required for growth and development and for aflatoxin biosynthesis under calcium stress conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Are the Genes nadA and norB Involved in Formation of Aflatoxin G1?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(9), 1717-1729; doi:10.3390/ijms9091717
Received: 6 August 2008 / Revised: 26 August 2008 / Accepted: 4 September 2008 / Published: 9 September 2008
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aflatoxins, the most toxic and carcinogenic family of fungal secondary metabolites, are frequent contaminants of foods intended for human consumption. Previous studies showed that formation of G-group aflatoxins (AFs) from Omethylsterigmatocystin (OMST) by certain Aspergillus species involves oxidation by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases,
[...] Read more.
Aflatoxins, the most toxic and carcinogenic family of fungal secondary metabolites, are frequent contaminants of foods intended for human consumption. Previous studies showed that formation of G-group aflatoxins (AFs) from Omethylsterigmatocystin (OMST) by certain Aspergillus species involves oxidation by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, OrdA (AflQ) and CypA (AflU). However, some of the steps in the conversion have not yet been fully defined. Extracts of Aspergillus parasiticus disruption mutants of the OYE-FMN binding domain reductase-encoding gene nadA (aflY) contained a 386 Da AFG1 precursor. A compound with this mass was predicted as the product of sequential OrdA and CypA oxidation of OMST. Increased amounts of a 362 Da alcohol, the presumptive product of NadA reduction, accumulate in extracts of fungi with disrupted aryl alcohol dehydrogenase-encoding gene norB. These results show that biosynthesis of AFG1 involves NadA reduction and NorB oxidation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Citrinin Production in Penicillium citrinum Cultures by Neem [Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae)]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(9), 1676-1684; doi:10.3390/ijms9091676
Received: 27 June 2008 / Revised: 8 August 2008 / Accepted: 29 August 2008 / Published: 2 September 2008
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (627 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The efficacy of different concentrations of aqueous neem leaf extract (3.12 to 50 mg/mL) on growth and citrinin production in three isolates of Penicillium citrinum was investigated under laboratory conditions. Mycotoxin production by the isolates was suppressed, depending on the concentration of the
[...] Read more.
The efficacy of different concentrations of aqueous neem leaf extract (3.12 to 50 mg/mL) on growth and citrinin production in three isolates of Penicillium citrinum was investigated under laboratory conditions. Mycotoxin production by the isolates was suppressed, depending on the concentration of the plant extract added to culture media at the time of spore inoculation. Citrinin production in fungal mycelia grown for 21 days in culture media containing 3.12 mg/mL of the aqueous extract of neem leaf was inhibited by approximately 80% in three isolates of P. citrinum. High-performance liquid chromatography was performed to confirm the spectrophotometric results. Vegetative growth was assessed, but neem extract failed to inhibit it. Neem leaf extract showed inhibition of toxin production without retardation in fungal mycelia growth. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Use of Isolated Human Lymphocytes in Mycotoxin Cytotoxicity Testing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(8), 1515-1526; doi:10.3390/ijms9081515
Received: 17 April 2008 / Revised: 25 July 2008 / Accepted: 1 August 2008 / Published: 25 August 2008
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The cytotoxicity of selected mycotoxins against isolated human lymphocytes was investigated, as a means of detecting mycotoxins in extracts derived from cereal samples. The methodology was based on the ability of viable cells to reduce methyl tetrazolium bromide to a purple formazan dye
[...] Read more.
The cytotoxicity of selected mycotoxins against isolated human lymphocytes was investigated, as a means of detecting mycotoxins in extracts derived from cereal samples. The methodology was based on the ability of viable cells to reduce methyl tetrazolium bromide to a purple formazan dye that could be quantitated by spectrophometric means and hence give a measure of the cytotoxicity of added substances. The results showed that there was good correlation with the occurrence of identified mycotoxins with only a minimum of false positives. For example, of the 13 samples of barley or barley derivatives that were positive for the mycotoxins, fumonisin B1 (FB1) deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA), all gave positive cytotoxicity responses. Two samples negative for mycotoxins gave no cytotoxicity responses. There was little variation between the results for lymphocytes drawn from the same healthy volunteer on three different occasions. Furthermore, for two of the mycotoxins tested (FB1 and DON) it was possible to correlate general levels of mycotoxins present to the cytotoxic response of the lymphocytes but not for OTA, where it was concluded that interfering substances prevented direct correlation. It was concluded that this method was suited for general application as it could handle relatively high number of samples in a short period of time. Full article
Open AccessArticle Aflatoxin B1 Degradation by Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia and Other Microbes Selected Using Coumarin Medium
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(8), 1489-1503; doi:10.3390/ijms9081489
Received: 13 May 2008 / Revised: 18 July 2008 / Accepted: 18 July 2008 / Published: 22 August 2008
Cited by 51 | PDF Full-text (174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the most harmful mycotoxins in animal production and food industry. A safe, effective and environmentally sound detoxification method is needed for controlling this toxin. In this study, 65 samples were screened from various sources with vast microbial
[...] Read more.
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the most harmful mycotoxins in animal production and food industry. A safe, effective and environmentally sound detoxification method is needed for controlling this toxin. In this study, 65 samples were screened from various sources with vast microbial populations using a newly developed medium containing coumarin as the sole carbon source. Twenty five single-colony bacterial isolates showing AFB1 reduction activity in a liquid culture medium were selected from the screen. Isolate 35-3, obtained from tapir feces and identified to be Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, reduced AFB1 by 82.5% after incubation in the liquid medium at 37 °C for 72 h. The culture supernatant of isolate 35-3 was able to degrade AFB1 effectively, whereas the viable cells and cell extracts were far less effective. Factors influencing AFB1 degradation by the culture supernatant were investigated. Activity was reduced to 60.8% and 63.5% at 20 °C and 30 °C, respectively, from 78.7% at 37 °C. The highest degradation rate was 84.8% at pH 8 and the lowest was only 14.3% at pH 4.0. Ions Mg2+ and Cu2+ were activators for AFB1 degradation, however,ion Zn2+ was a strong inhibitor. Treatments with proteinase K, proteinase K plus SDS and heating significantly reduced or eradicated the degradation activity of the culture supernatant. The results indicated that the degradation of AFB1 by S. maltophilia 35-3 was enzymatic and could have a great potential in industrial applications. Full article
Open AccessArticle Binding of Ochratoxin A to a Urinary Globulin: A New Concept to Account for Gender Difference in Rat Nephrocarcinogenic Responses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(5), 719-735; doi:10.3390/ijms9050719
Received: 14 January 2008 / Revised: 6 April 2008 / Accepted: 6 May 2008 / Published: 8 May 2008
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (3617 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
SDS-gradient mini-gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting of urine of rats given ochratoxin A (OTA), showed OTA binding to an α2u-globulin. Perceived potential internalised delivery of OTA to proximal tubule epithelia by the carrier, specific only to adult male rats and augmenting other uptake mechanisms,
[...] Read more.
SDS-gradient mini-gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting of urine of rats given ochratoxin A (OTA), showed OTA binding to an α2u-globulin. Perceived potential internalised delivery of OTA to proximal tubule epithelia by the carrier, specific only to adult male rats and augmenting other uptake mechanisms, suggests that some experimental nephrotoxicological data may not be appropriate for human risk assessment. Reexamination of female rat renal tumour histopathology of the NTP high dose OTA study showed all carcinomas were solitary, unilateral, microscopic and clinically insignificant at the 2-year end-stage. The novel concept, when consolidated further from our archived material, may moderate current perceptions of the human risk of traces of dietary OTA. Full article
Open AccessArticle Identification of Select Fumonisin Forming Fusarium Species Using PCR Applications of the Polyketide Synthase Gene and its Relationship to Fumonisin Production in vitro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(4), 554-570; doi:10.3390/ijms9040554
Received: 11 January 2008 / Revised: 19 March 2008 / Accepted: 2 April 2008 / Published: 8 April 2008
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnostic assay was used to develop markers for detection of Fusarium verticillioides (=F. moniliforme), a fumonisin producing fungus in maize tissues. Species-specific primers were designed based on sequence data from the polyketide synthase (PKS) gene
[...] Read more.
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnostic assay was used to develop markers for detection of Fusarium verticillioides (=F. moniliforme), a fumonisin producing fungus in maize tissues. Species-specific primers were designed based on sequence data from the polyketide synthase (PKS) gene (FUM1- previously FUM5) responsible for fumonisin production in fungi. Four sets of oligonucleotide primers were tested for their specificity using 24 strains of F. verticillioides, 10 F. proliferatum, and 12 of other Fusarium species. In addition, 13 species of other fungal genera, from four phyla, were tested as negative controls. Among the four sets, primer set B consistently amplified a 419- bp fragment from the DNA 96% of all F. verticillioides strains and 83% of F. proliferatum. All other fungi tested were negative using primer set B. A total of 38% of the F. verticillioides strains grown on a selective liquid medium produced fumonisin and 92% formed the toxin on standard rice medium. When fumonisin formed in culture, PCR assay using primer set B detected every strain of F. verticillioides, but only amplified 80% of F. proliferatum strains that produced the toxin. PCR detection was consistent at 100 pg/μl concentration of genomic DNA from 4 F. verticillioides strains, but varied at 10 pg/μl. Two duplicate greenhouse tests using artificially inoculated maize plants, had greater levels of F. verticillioides detected after re-evaluting using primer set B than from culturing of the tissues. The molecular protocols described in this study requires only 1 day for completion compared to approximately 10 days for cultural work and morphological determination. In conclusion, conventional PCR assay using primer set B provides a sensitive and accurate detection assay that can be used as a primary or secondary confirmation method for identification and occurrence of F. verticillioides within the maize tissues. However, studies using primer set B for fumonisin production determined by strains of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum will require further verification. Full article
Open AccessArticle Interaction of Wild Strains of Aspergilla with Aspergillus parasiticus ATCC15517 on Aflatoxins Production
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(3), 394-400; doi:10.3390/ijms9030394
Received: 11 January 2008 / Revised: 18 February 2008 / Accepted: 18 March 2008 / Published: 20 March 2008
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (95 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by some competent mould strains of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. These compounds have been extensively studied concerning its toxicity for animals and humans; they are able to induce liver cancer and caused a large range
[...] Read more.
Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by some competent mould strains of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. These compounds have been extensively studied concerning its toxicity for animals and humans; they are able to induce liver cancer and caused a large range of adverse effects on living organisms. Aflatoxins are found as natural contaminants of food and feed; the main line of the strategy to control them is based on the prevention of the mould growth in raw vegetable or during its storage and monitoring of each crop batch. Moulds growth is conditioned by many ecological factors, including biotic one’s. Hazard characterization models for Aflatoxins in crops must take in consideration the biotic interaction that moulds establish between them on their growth development. The aim of this work is to study the effect of the biotic interaction of 14 different wild strains of Aspergilla (different species), with a competent strain (Aspergillus parasiticus ATCC 15517) using an in vitro production model. The laboratorial model concerns to a natural matrix (humidified cracked corn), in which each wild strain challenged the producer strain for Aflatoxins production. Cultures were incubated at 28ºC for 12 days and sampled at 8th and 12th. Aflatoxins detection and quantification was performed by HPLC using a procedure with a MRPL = 1 μg/kg. Results of those interactive cultures revealed both synergic and antagonist effects on the Aflatoxin biosynthesis. Productivity increases were particularly evident at 8th day of incubation with wild strains of A. flavipes (+ 70.4 % ), A. versicolor (+ 54.9 %) and A. flavus 3 (+ 62.6 %). Antagonist effects were found with A. niger (- 69.5%) , A. fumigatus (- 47.6 %) and A. terreus (- 47.6 %) at 12th day. The increasable effects were more evident at 8th of incubation and the decrease was more patent at the 12th day. Results show that the development of Aspergilla strains concomitantly with competent aflatoxins producer moulds has a significant influence on the natural biosynthesis pattern. Full article

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Open AccessReview Trichothecenes in Cereal Grains
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 147-173; doi:10.3390/ijms10010147
Received: 7 November 2008 / Revised: 16 December 2008 / Accepted: 5 January 2009 / Published: 6 January 2009
Cited by 105 | PDF Full-text (128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins associated with fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereals, with worldwide economic and health impacts. While various management strategies have been proposed to reduce the mycotoxin risk, breeding towards FHB-resistance appears to be the most effective means to manage the
[...] Read more.
Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins associated with fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereals, with worldwide economic and health impacts. While various management strategies have been proposed to reduce the mycotoxin risk, breeding towards FHB-resistance appears to be the most effective means to manage the disease, and reduce trichothecene contamination of cereal-based food products. This review provides a brief summary of the trichothecene synthesis in Fusarium species, their toxicity in plants and humans, followed by the current methods of screening and breeding for resistance to FHB and trichothecene accumulation. Full article
Open AccessReview An Overview of Conventional and Emerging Analytical Methods for the Determination of Mycotoxins
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 62-115; doi:10.3390/ijms10010062
Received: 29 October 2008 / Revised: 24 November 2008 / Accepted: 1 January 2009 / Published: 2 January 2009
Cited by 68 | PDF Full-text (350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mycotoxins are a group of compounds produced by various fungi and excreted into the matrices on which they grow, often food intended for human consumption or animal feed. The high toxicity and carcinogenicity of these compounds and their ability to cause various pathological
[...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are a group of compounds produced by various fungi and excreted into the matrices on which they grow, often food intended for human consumption or animal feed. The high toxicity and carcinogenicity of these compounds and their ability to cause various pathological conditions has led to widespread screening of foods and feeds potentially polluted with them. Maximum permissible levels in different matrices have also been established for some toxins. As these are quite low, analytical methods for determination of mycotoxins have to be both sensitive and specific. In addition, an appropriate sample preparation and pre-concentration method is needed to isolate analytes from rather complicated samples. In this article, an overview of methods for analysis and sample preparation published in the last ten years is given for the most often encountered mycotoxins in different samples, mainly in food. Special emphasis is on liquid chromatography with fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection, while in the field of sample preparation various solid-phase extraction approaches are discussed. However, an overview of other analytical and sample preparation methods less often used is also given. Finally, different matrices where mycotoxins have to be determined are discussed with the emphasis on their specific characteristics important for the analysis (human food and beverages, animal feed, biological samples, environmental samples). Various issues important for accurate qualitative and quantitative analyses are critically discussed: sampling and choice of representative sample, sample preparation and possible bias associated with it, specificity of the analytical method and critical evaluation of results. Full article
Open AccessReview Zearalenone and Reproductive Function in Farm Animals
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(12), 2570-2584; doi:10.3390/ijms9122570
Received: 3 November 2008 / Revised: 4 December 2008 / Accepted: 8 December 2008 / Published: 11 December 2008
Cited by 85 | PDF Full-text (169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Farm animals are exposed to zearalenone through the feed because of the widespread occurrence of this mycotoxin in cereals and clinical reproductive disorders due to mycotoxin effects are often reported in farm animal species. This review describes the metabolism, the mechanistic aspects, the
[...] Read more.
Farm animals are exposed to zearalenone through the feed because of the widespread occurrence of this mycotoxin in cereals and clinical reproductive disorders due to mycotoxin effects are often reported in farm animal species. This review describes the metabolism, the mechanistic aspects, the clinical reproductive symptoms and the in vitro effects on functional parameters of oocytes and sperm cells induced by zearalenone and its derivatives in farm animals. The studies on in vitro effects allow to understand the action mechanisms of mycotoxins and, sometime, to explain the in vivo symptoms. The impairment of semen quality and female reproductive function induced by zearalenone could be a factor responsible for the reproductive failure in farm animals. Full article
Open AccessReview Species-specific Fungal DNA in Airborne Dust as Surrogate for Occupational Mycotoxin Exposure?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(12), 2543-2558; doi:10.3390/ijms9122543
Received: 7 November 2008 / Revised: 8 December 2008 / Accepted: 10 December 2008 / Published: 10 December 2008
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Possible health risks associated with occupational inhalation of mycotoxin-containing dust remain largely unknown, partly because methods for mycotoxin detection are not sensitive enough for the small dust masses obtained by personal sampling, which is needed for inhalable exposure measurements. Specific and sensitive PCR
[...] Read more.
Possible health risks associated with occupational inhalation of mycotoxin-containing dust remain largely unknown, partly because methods for mycotoxin detection are not sensitive enough for the small dust masses obtained by personal sampling, which is needed for inhalable exposure measurements. Specific and sensitive PCR detection of fungi with mycotoxin-producing potential seem to be a good surrogate for occupational exposure measurements that include all fungal structures independent of morphology and cultivability. Results should, however, be interpreted with caution due to variable correlations with mycotoxin concentrations. Full article
Open AccessReview Mycotoxin Detection Plays “Cops and Robbers”: Cyclodextrin Chemosensors as Specialized Police?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(12), 2474-2494; doi:10.3390/ijms9122474
Received: 29 September 2008 / Revised: 20 November 2008 / Accepted: 3 December 2008 / Published: 5 December 2008
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (978 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As in a cops and robbers play we discover new mycotoxins and metabolites everyday and we are forced to develop new molecules quickly as chemo- or biosensors or to modify existing molecules able to recognize these new hazardous compounds. This will result in
[...] Read more.
As in a cops and robbers play we discover new mycotoxins and metabolites everyday and we are forced to develop new molecules quickly as chemo- or biosensors or to modify existing molecules able to recognize these new hazardous compounds. This will result in an enormous cost saving to agro-food industry through the prevention and reduction of product recalls and reduced treatment costs. Here we present a brief review of the rapid methods used to detect mycotoxins, considering usefulness and limits. Then we propose a new fast, efficient and cheap methodology, based on a combination of computer chemistry aided design and fluorescence, that can help to drive synthesis in a more efficient way. Full article
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Open AccessReview Effects of Milling and Cooking Processes on the Deoxynivalenol Content in Wheat
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(11), 2127-2145; doi:10.3390/ijms9112127
Received: 31 July 2008 / Revised: 29 October 2008 / Accepted: 3 November 2008 / Published: 5 November 2008
Cited by 62 | PDF Full-text (139 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a natural-occuring mycotoxin mainly produced by Fusarium graminearum, a food-borne fungi widely distributed in crops and it is one of the most important mycotoxins in wheat and wheat-based foods and feeds. DON affects animal and human health causing
[...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a natural-occuring mycotoxin mainly produced by Fusarium graminearum, a food-borne fungi widely distributed in crops and it is one of the most important mycotoxins in wheat and wheat-based foods and feeds. DON affects animal and human health causing diarrhea, vomiting, gastro-intestinal inflammation, and immunomodulation. Since the rate of the occurrence of DON in wheat is high, effective procedures to remove or eliminate DON from food products is essential to minimize exposures in those who consume large amounts of wheat. Cleaning prior to milling reduced to some extent the concentration of DON in final products. Since DON is distributed throughout the kernels, with higher content in the outer skin, milling is also effective in reducing the DON levels of wheat-based foods if bran and shorts are removed before thermal cooking. DON is water-soluble and cooking with larger amounts of water lowers DON content in products such as spaghetti and noodles. During baking or heating, DON is partially degraded to DON-related chemicals, whose toxicological effects are not studied well. This paper reviews the researches on the effects of milling and cooking on the DON level and discusses the perspectives of further studies. Full article
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Open AccessReview T-2 Toxin-induced Toxicity in Pregnant Mice and Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(11), 2146-2158; doi:10.3390/ijms9112146
Received: 17 October 2008 / Revised: 31 October 2008 / Accepted: 4 November 2008 / Published: 5 November 2008
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (2497 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
T-2 toxin is a cytotoxic secondary fungal metabolite that belongs to the trichothecene mycotoxin family. This mycotoxin is a well known inhibitor of protein synthesis through its high binding affinity to peptidyl transferase, which is an integral part of the ribosomal 60s subunit,
[...] Read more.
T-2 toxin is a cytotoxic secondary fungal metabolite that belongs to the trichothecene mycotoxin family. This mycotoxin is a well known inhibitor of protein synthesis through its high binding affinity to peptidyl transferase, which is an integral part of the ribosomal 60s subunit, and it also inhibits the synthesis of DNA and RNA, probably secondary to the inhibition of protein synthesis. In addition, T-2 toxin is said to induce apoptosis in many types of cells bearing high proliferating activity. T-2 toxin readily passes the placenta and is distributed to embryo/fetal tissues, which include many component cells bearing high proliferating activity. This paper reviews the reported data related to T-2 toxin-induced maternal and fetal toxicities in pregnant mice and rats. The mechanisms of T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis in maternal and fetal tissues are also discussed in this paper. Full article
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Open AccessReview Fumonisins, Trichothecenes and Zearalenone in Cereals
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(11), 2062-2090; doi:10.3390/ijms9112062
Received: 28 July 2008 / Revised: 26 October 2008 / Accepted: 28 October 2008 / Published: 31 October 2008
Cited by 105 | PDF Full-text (200 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fumonisins are phytotoxic mycotoxins which are synthesized by various species of the fungal genus Fusarium such as Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg (ex F.moniliforme Sheldon) and Fusarium proliferatum. The trichothecene (TC) mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produce by species that belong to several fungal
[...] Read more.
Fumonisins are phytotoxic mycotoxins which are synthesized by various species of the fungal genus Fusarium such as Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg (ex F.moniliforme Sheldon) and Fusarium proliferatum. The trichothecene (TC) mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produce by species that belong to several fungal genera, especially Fusarium, Stachybotrys, Trichothecium, Trichoderma, Memnoniella and Myrothecium. Fusarium mycotoxins are widely dispersed in cereals and their products. Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic compound produced by Fusarium spp. such as F. graminearum and F. culmorum. Fumonisins, the TCs and ZEA are hazardous for human and animal health. Contamination with TCs causes a number of illnesses in human and animal such as decrease in food consumption (anorexia), depression or inhibition on immune system function and haematoxicity. The purpose of this paper is to give a review of the papers published on the field of fumonisin, TC and ZEA mycotoxins in cereals consumed in the world. Full article
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Open AccessReview Antibody-mediated Prevention of Fusarium Mycotoxins in the Field
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(10), 1915-1926; doi:10.3390/ijms9101915
Received: 21 August 2008 / Revised: 26 September 2008 / Accepted: 6 October 2008 / Published: 9 October 2008
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (71 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fusarium mycotoxins directly accumulated in grains during the infection of wheat and other cereal crops by Fusarium head blight (FHB) pathogens are detrimental to humans and domesticated animals. Prevention of the mycotoxins via the development of FHB-resistant varieties has been a challenge due
[...] Read more.
Fusarium mycotoxins directly accumulated in grains during the infection of wheat and other cereal crops by Fusarium head blight (FHB) pathogens are detrimental to humans and domesticated animals. Prevention of the mycotoxins via the development of FHB-resistant varieties has been a challenge due to the scarcity of natural resistance against FHB pathogens. Various antibodies specific to Fusarium fungi and mycotoxins are widely used in immunoassays and antibody-mediated resistance in planta against Fusarium pathogens has been demonstrated. Antibodies fused to antifungal proteins have been shown to confer a very significantly enhanced Fusarium resistance in transgenic plants. Thus, antibody fusions hold great promise as an effective tool for the prevention of mycotoxin contaminations in cereal grains. This review highlights the utilization of protective antibodies derived from phage display to increase endogenous resistance of wheat to FHB pathogens and consequently to reduce mycotoxins in field. The role played by Fusarium-specific antibody in the resistance is also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview Complex Etiology, Prophylaxis and Hygiene Control in Mycotoxic Nephropathies in Farm Animals and Humans
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(4), 578-605; doi:10.3390/ijms9040578
Received: 7 December 2007 / Revised: 7 April 2008 / Accepted: 10 April 2008 / Published: 18 April 2008
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Abstract
Various etiological factors contributing to the development of mycotoxic nephropathy in farm animals and humans are reviewed. The possible synergistic effect between ochratoxin A (OTA) and other mycotoxins, as penicillic acid (PA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), contributing to this nephropathy is also considered
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Various etiological factors contributing to the development of mycotoxic nephropathy in farm animals and humans are reviewed. The possible synergistic effect between ochratoxin A (OTA) and other mycotoxins, as penicillic acid (PA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), contributing to this nephropathy is also considered and discussed. The most convenient ways of prophylaxis and various preventive measures against OTA contamination of feeds or foods are reviewed. A reference is made concerning the most successful methods of veterinary hygiene control in the slaughterhouses in order to prevent the entering of OTA in commercial channels with a view to human health. The economic efficacy of these prophylactic procedures is also considered. An evaluation of human exposure to OTA is made. Full article

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