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Effects of Milling and Cooking Processes on the Deoxynivalenol Content in Wheat
National Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization / 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba 305-8642, Japan
Received: 31 July 2008; in revised form: 29 October 2008 / Accepted: 3 November 2008 / Published: 5 November 2008
Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a natural-occuring mycotoxin mainly produced by Fusarium graminearum, a food-borne fungi widely distributed in crops and it is one of the most important mycotoxins in wheat and wheat-based foods and feeds. DON affects animal and human health causing diarrhea, vomiting, gastro-intestinal inflammation, and immunomodulation. Since the rate of the occurrence of DON in wheat is high, effective procedures to remove or eliminate DON from food products is essential to minimize exposures in those who consume large amounts of wheat. Cleaning prior to milling reduced to some extent the concentration of DON in final products. Since DON is distributed throughout the kernels, with higher content in the outer skin, milling is also effective in reducing the DON levels of wheat-based foods if bran and shorts are removed before thermal cooking. DON is water-soluble and cooking with larger amounts of water lowers DON content in products such as spaghetti and noodles. During baking or heating, DON is partially degraded to DON-related chemicals, whose toxicological effects are not studied well. This paper reviews the researches on the effects of milling and cooking on the DON level and discusses the perspectives of further studies.
Keywords: Deoxynivalenol; DON; wheat; milling; cooking
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MDPI and ACS Style
Kushiro, M. Effects of Milling and Cooking Processes on the Deoxynivalenol Content in Wheat. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9, 2127-2145.
Kushiro M. Effects of Milling and Cooking Processes on the Deoxynivalenol Content in Wheat. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2008; 9(11):2127-2145.
Kushiro, Masayo. 2008. "Effects of Milling and Cooking Processes on the Deoxynivalenol Content in Wheat." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 9, no. 11: 2127-2145.