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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(4), 578-605; doi:10.3390/ijms9040578
Review

Complex Etiology, Prophylaxis and Hygiene Control in Mycotoxic Nephropathies in Farm Animals and Humans

Received: 7 December 2007 / Revised: 7 April 2008 / Accepted: 10 April 2008 / Published: 18 April 2008
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Abstract

Various etiological factors contributing to the development of mycotoxic nephropathy in farm animals and humans are reviewed. The possible synergistic effect between ochratoxin A (OTA) and other mycotoxins, as penicillic acid (PA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), contributing to this nephropathy is also considered and discussed. The most convenient ways of prophylaxis and various preventive measures against OTA contamination of feeds or foods are reviewed. A reference is made concerning the most successful methods of veterinary hygiene control in the slaughterhouses in order to prevent the entering of OTA in commercial channels with a view to human health. The economic efficacy of these prophylactic procedures is also considered. An evaluation of human exposure to OTA is made.
Keywords: mycotoxic nephropathy; Balkan endemic nephropathy; ochratoxin A; penicillic acid; fumonisin B1; synergism; preventive measures; hygiene control; pathogenesis mycotoxic nephropathy; Balkan endemic nephropathy; ochratoxin A; penicillic acid; fumonisin B1; synergism; preventive measures; hygiene control; pathogenesis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Stoev, S.D. Complex Etiology, Prophylaxis and Hygiene Control in Mycotoxic Nephropathies in Farm Animals and Humans. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9, 578-605.

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Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert