Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(4), 578-605; doi:10.3390/ijms9040578
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Complex Etiology, Prophylaxis and Hygiene Control in Mycotoxic Nephropathies in Farm Animals and Humans

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Received: 7 December 2007; in revised form: 7 April 2008 / Accepted: 10 April 2008 / Published: 18 April 2008
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Various etiological factors contributing to the development of mycotoxic nephropathy in farm animals and humans are reviewed. The possible synergistic effect between ochratoxin A (OTA) and other mycotoxins, as penicillic acid (PA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), contributing to this nephropathy is also considered and discussed. The most convenient ways of prophylaxis and various preventive measures against OTA contamination of feeds or foods are reviewed. A reference is made concerning the most successful methods of veterinary hygiene control in the slaughterhouses in order to prevent the entering of OTA in commercial channels with a view to human health. The economic efficacy of these prophylactic procedures is also considered. An evaluation of human exposure to OTA is made.
Keywords: mycotoxic nephropathy; Balkan endemic nephropathy; ochratoxin A; penicillic acid; fumonisin B1; synergism; preventive measures; hygiene control; pathogenesis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stoev, S.D. Complex Etiology, Prophylaxis and Hygiene Control in Mycotoxic Nephropathies in Farm Animals and Humans. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9, 578-605.

AMA Style

Stoev SD. Complex Etiology, Prophylaxis and Hygiene Control in Mycotoxic Nephropathies in Farm Animals and Humans. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2008; 9(4):578-605.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stoev, Stoycho D. 2008. "Complex Etiology, Prophylaxis and Hygiene Control in Mycotoxic Nephropathies in Farm Animals and Humans." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 9, no. 4: 578-605.

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