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An Overview of Conventional and Emerging Analytical Methods for the Determination of Mycotoxins
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Aškerčeva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 October 2008; in revised form: 24 November 2008 / Accepted: 1 January 2009 / Published: 2 January 2009
Abstract: Mycotoxins are a group of compounds produced by various fungi and excreted into the matrices on which they grow, often food intended for human consumption or animal feed. The high toxicity and carcinogenicity of these compounds and their ability to cause various pathological conditions has led to widespread screening of foods and feeds potentially polluted with them. Maximum permissible levels in different matrices have also been established for some toxins. As these are quite low, analytical methods for determination of mycotoxins have to be both sensitive and specific. In addition, an appropriate sample preparation and pre-concentration method is needed to isolate analytes from rather complicated samples. In this article, an overview of methods for analysis and sample preparation published in the last ten years is given for the most often encountered mycotoxins in different samples, mainly in food. Special emphasis is on liquid chromatography with fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection, while in the field of sample preparation various solid-phase extraction approaches are discussed. However, an overview of other analytical and sample preparation methods less often used is also given. Finally, different matrices where mycotoxins have to be determined are discussed with the emphasis on their specific characteristics important for the analysis (human food and beverages, animal feed, biological samples, environmental samples). Various issues important for accurate qualitative and quantitative analyses are critically discussed: sampling and choice of representative sample, sample preparation and possible bias associated with it, specificity of the analytical method and critical evaluation of results.
Keywords: Mycotoxins; analysis; sample preparation; screening; food; animal feed; method validation; reference materials
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Kralj Cigić, I.; Prosen, H. An Overview of Conventional and Emerging Analytical Methods for the Determination of Mycotoxins. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 62-115.
Kralj Cigić I, Prosen H. An Overview of Conventional and Emerging Analytical Methods for the Determination of Mycotoxins. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2009; 10(1):62-115.
Kralj Cigić, Irena; Prosen, Helena. 2009. "An Overview of Conventional and Emerging Analytical Methods for the Determination of Mycotoxins." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10, no. 1: 62-115.