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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(12), 2495-2504; doi:10.3390/ijms9122495
Article

Development of a Generic PCR Detection of 3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol-, 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol- and Nivalenol-Chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum Clade

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Received: 6 November 2008; in revised form: 20 November 2008 / Accepted: 3 December 2008 / Published: 5 December 2008
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Abstract: Fusarium graminearum clade pathogens cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab of wheat and other small cereal grains, producing different kinds of trichothecene mycotoxins that are detrimental to human and domestic animals. Type B trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-AcDON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-AcDON) and nivalenol (NIV) are the principal Fusarium mycotoxins reported in China, as well as in other countries. A genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to predict chemotypes was developed based on the structural gene sequences of Tri13 genes involved in trichothecene mycotoxin biosynthesis pathways. A single pair of primers derived from the Tri13 genes detected a 583 bp fragment from 15-AcDON-chemotypes, a 644 bp fragment from 3-AcDON-chemotypes and an 859 bp fragment from NIV-producing strains. Fusarium strains from China, Nepal, USA and Europe were identified by this method, revealing their mycotoxin chemotypes identical to that obtained by chemical analyses of HPLC or GC/MS and other PCR assays. The mycotoxin chemotype-specific fragments were amplified from a highly variable region located in Tri13 genes with three deletions for 15-AcDON-chemotypes, two deletions for 3-AcDON-chemotypes and no deletion for NIV-producers. This PCR assay generated a single amplicon and thus should be more reliable than other PCR-based assays that showed the absence or presence of a PCR fragment since these assays may generate false-negative results. The results with strains from several different countries as well as from different hosts further indicated that this method should be globally applicable. This is a rapid, reliable and cost-effective method for the identification of type B trichothecene mycotoxin chemotypes in Fusarium species and food safety controls.
Keywords: Fusarium graminearum clade; trichothecene; mycotoxin chemotype; 3- AcDON; 15-AcDON; NIV Fusarium graminearum clade; trichothecene; mycotoxin chemotype; 3- AcDON; 15-AcDON; NIV
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, J.-H.; Li, H.-P.; Qu, B.; Zhang, J.-B.; Huang, T.; Chen, F.-F.; Liao, Y.-C. Development of a Generic PCR Detection of 3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol-, 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol- and Nivalenol-Chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum Clade. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9, 2495-2504.

AMA Style

Wang J-H, Li H-P, Qu B, Zhang J-B, Huang T, Chen F-F, Liao Y-C. Development of a Generic PCR Detection of 3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol-, 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol- and Nivalenol-Chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum Clade. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2008; 9(12):2495-2504.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Jian-Hua; Li, He-Ping; Qu, Bo; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Huang, Tao; Chen, Fang-Fang; Liao, Yu-Cai. 2008. "Development of a Generic PCR Detection of 3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol-, 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol- and Nivalenol-Chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum Clade." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 9, no. 12: 2495-2504.


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