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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 14, Issue 1 (January 2013), Pages 1-2229

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Open AccessArticle Adhesion-Induced Phase Behavior of Two-Component Membranes and Vesicles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 2203-2229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14012203
Received: 20 December 2012 / Revised: 17 January 2013 / Accepted: 18 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (931 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The interplay of adhesion and phase separation is studied theoretically for two-component membranes that can phase separate into two fluid phases such as liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases. Many adhesion geometries provide two different environments for these membranes and then partition the membranes into
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The interplay of adhesion and phase separation is studied theoretically for two-component membranes that can phase separate into two fluid phases such as liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases. Many adhesion geometries provide two different environments for these membranes and then partition the membranes into two segments that differ in their composition. Examples are provided by adhering vesicles, by hole- or pore-spanning membranes, and by membranes supported by chemically patterned surfaces. Generalizing a lattice model for binary mixtures to these adhesion geometries, we show that the phase behavior of the adhering membranes depends, apart from composition and temperature, on two additional parameters, the area fraction of one membrane segment and the affinity contrast between the two segments. For the generic case of non-vanishing affinity contrast, the adhering membranes undergo two distinct phase transitions and the phase diagrams in the composition/temperature plane have a generic topology that consists of two two-phase coexistence regions separated by an intermediate one-phase region. As a consequence, phase separation and domain formation is predicted to occur separately in each of the two membrane segments but not in both segments simultaneously. Furthermore, adhesion is also predicted to suppress the phase separation process for certain regions of the phase diagrams. These generic features of the adhesion-induced phase behavior are accessible to experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-Assembled Soft Matter Nanostructures at Interfaces)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Repetitive Lysine-Tryptophan Motifs on the Eukaryotic Membrane
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 2190-2202; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14012190
Received: 27 November 2012 / Revised: 14 January 2013 / Accepted: 15 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (687 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In a previous study, we synthesized a series of peptides containing simple sequence repeats, (KW)nNH2 (n = 2,3,4 and 5) and determined their antimicrobial and hemolytic activities, as well as their mechanism of antimicrobial action. However, (KW)5
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In a previous study, we synthesized a series of peptides containing simple sequence repeats, (KW)nNH2 (n = 2,3,4 and 5) and determined their antimicrobial and hemolytic activities, as well as their mechanism of antimicrobial action. However, (KW)5 showed undesirable cytotoxicity against RBC cells. In order to identify the mechanisms behind the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of (KW)5, we measured the ability of these peptides to induce aggregation of liposomes. In addition, their binding and permeation activities were assessed by Trp fluorescence, calcein leakage and circular dichrorism using artificial phospholipids that mimic eukaryotic liposomes, including phosphatidylcholine (PC), PC/sphingomyelin (SM) (2:1, w/w) and PC/cholesterol (CH) (2:1, w/w). Experiments confirmed that only (KW)5 induced aggregation of all liposomes; it formed much larger aggregates with PC:CH (2:1, w/w) than with PC or PC:SM (2:1, w/w). Longer peptide (KW)5, but not (KW)3 or (KW)4, strongly bound and partially inserted into PC:CH compared to PC or PC:SM (2:1, w/w). Calcein release experiments showed that (KW)5 induced calcein leakage from the eukaryotic membrane. Greater calcein leakage was induced by (KW)5 from PC:CH than from PC:SM (2:1, w/w) or PC, whereas (KW)4 did not induce calcein leakage from any of the liposomes. Circular dichroism measurements indicated that (KW)5 showed higher conformational transition compared to (KW)4 due to peptide-liposome interactions. Taken together, our results suggest that (KW)5 reasonably mediates the aggregation and permeabilization of eukaryotic membranes, which could in turn explain why (KW)5 displays efficient hemolytic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phospholipids: Molecular Sciences 2012)
Open AccessArticle Induction of Heat Shock Protein 70 Ameliorates Ultraviolet-Induced Photokeratitis in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 2175-2189; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14012175
Received: 7 November 2012 / Revised: 9 January 2013 / Accepted: 18 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Acute ultraviolet (UV) B exposure causes photokeratitis and induces apoptosis in corneal cells. Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) is an acyclic polyisoprenoid that induces expression of heat shock protein (HSP)70, a soluble intracellular chaperone protein expressed in various tissues, protecting cells against stress conditions. We examined
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Acute ultraviolet (UV) B exposure causes photokeratitis and induces apoptosis in corneal cells. Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) is an acyclic polyisoprenoid that induces expression of heat shock protein (HSP)70, a soluble intracellular chaperone protein expressed in various tissues, protecting cells against stress conditions. We examined whether induction of HSP70 has therapeutic effects on UV-photokeratitis in mice. C57 BL/6 mice were divided into four groups, GGA-treated (500 mg/kg/mouse) and UVB-exposed (400 mJ/cm2), GGA-untreated UVB-exposed (400 mJ/cm2), GGA-treated (500 mg/kg/mouse) but not exposed and naive controls. Eyeballs were collected 24 h after irradiation, and corneas were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). HSP70, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and protein kinase B (Akt) expression were also evaluated. Irradiated corneal epithelium was significantly thicker in the eyes of mice treated with GGA compared with those given the vehicle alone (p < 0.01). Significantly fewer TUNEL-positive cells were observed in the eyes of GGA-treated mice than controls after irradiation (p < 0.01). Corneal HSP70 levels were significantly elevated in corneas of mice treated with GGA (p < 0.05). ROS signal was not affected by GGA. NF-κB activation was reduced but phospho-(Ser/Ther) Akt substrate expression was increased in corneas after irradiation when treated with GGA. GGA-treatment induced HSP70 expression and ameliorated UV-induced corneal damage through the reduced NF-κB activation and possibly increased Akt phosphorilation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UV-Induced Cell Death 2012)
Open AccessReview Innovative Therapeutic Strategies in the Treatment of Brain Metastases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 2135-2174; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14012135
Received: 9 December 2012 / Revised: 8 January 2013 / Accepted: 9 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Brain metastases (BM) are the most common intracranial tumors and their incidence is increasing. Untreated brain metastases are associated with a poor prognosis and a poor performance status. Metastasis development involves the migration of a cancer cell from the bulk tumor into the
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Brain metastases (BM) are the most common intracranial tumors and their incidence is increasing. Untreated brain metastases are associated with a poor prognosis and a poor performance status. Metastasis development involves the migration of a cancer cell from the bulk tumor into the surrounding tissue, extravasation from the blood into tissue elsewhere in the body, and formation of a secondary tumor. In the recent past, important results have been obtained in the management of patients affected by BM, using surgery, radiation therapy, or both. Conventional chemotherapies have generally produced disappointing results, possibly due to their limited ability to penetrate the blood–brain barrier. The advent of new technologies has led to the discovery of novel molecules and pathways that have better depicted the metastatic process. Targeted therapies such as bevacizumab, erlotinib, gefitinib, sunitinib and sorafenib, are all licensed and have demonstrated improved survival in patients with metastatic disease. In this review, we will report current data on targeted therapies. A brief review about brain metastatic process will be also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Metastasis)
Open AccessArticle Low Oxygen Tension Maintains Multipotency, Whereas Normoxia Increases Differentiation of Mouse Bone Marrow Stromal Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 2119-2134; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14012119
Received: 21 November 2012 / Revised: 4 January 2013 / Accepted: 5 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (857 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Optimization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) culture conditions is of great importance for their more successful application in regenerative medicine. O2 regulates various aspects of cellular biology and, in vivo, MSC are exposed to different O2 concentrations spanning from very
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Optimization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) culture conditions is of great importance for their more successful application in regenerative medicine. O2 regulates various aspects of cellular biology and, in vivo, MSC are exposed to different O2 concentrations spanning from very low tension in the bone marrow niche, to higher amounts in wounds. In our present work, we isolated mouse bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) and showed that they contained a population meeting requirements for MSC definition. In order to establish the effect of low O2 on cellular properties, we examined BSMC cultured under hypoxic (3% O2) conditions. Our results demonstrate that 3% O2 augmented proliferation of BMSC, as well as the formation of colonies in the colony-forming unit assay (CFU-A), the percentage of quiescent cells, and the expression of stemness markers Rex-1 and Oct-4, thereby suggesting an increase in the stemness of culture when exposed to hypoxia. In contrast, intrinsic differentiation processes were inhibited by 3% O2. Overall yield of differentiation was dependent on the adjustment of O2 tension to the specific stage of BMSC culture. Thus, we established a strategy for efficient BMSC in vitro differentiation using an initial phase of cell propagation at 3% O2, followed by differentiation stage at 21% O2. We also demonstrated that 3% O2 affected BMSC differentiation in p53 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) independent pathways. Our findings can significantly contribute to the obtaining of high-quality MSC for effective cell therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine)
Open AccessArticle Metabolic Profiles of Brain Metastases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 2104-2118; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14012104
Received: 26 October 2012 / Accepted: 9 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (2255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metastasis to the brain is a feared complication of systemic cancer, associated with significant morbidity and poor prognosis. A better understanding of the tumor metabolism might help us meet the challenges in controlling brain metastases. The study aims to characterize the metabolic profile
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Metastasis to the brain is a feared complication of systemic cancer, associated with significant morbidity and poor prognosis. A better understanding of the tumor metabolism might help us meet the challenges in controlling brain metastases. The study aims to characterize the metabolic profile of brain metastases of different origin using high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to correlate the metabolic profiles to clinical and pathological information. Biopsy samples of human brain metastases (n = 49) were investigated. A significant correlation between lipid signals and necrosis in brain metastases was observed (p < 0.01), irrespective of their primary origin. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that brain metastases from malignant melanomas cluster together, while lung carcinomas were metabolically heterogeneous and overlap with other subtypes. Metastatic melanomas have higher amounts of glycerophosphocholine than other brain metastases. A significant correlation between microscopically visible lipid droplets estimated by Nile Red staining and MR visible lipid signals was observed in metastatic lung carcinomas (p = 0.01), indicating that the proton MR visible lipid signals arise from cytoplasmic lipid droplets. MRS-based metabolomic profiling is a useful tool for exploring the metabolic profiles of metastatic brain tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Metastasis)
Open AccessArticle Pre-Treatment of Platinum Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells with an MMP-9/MMP-2 Inhibitor Prior to Cisplatin Enhances Cytotoxicity as Determined by High Content Screening
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 2085-2103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14012085
Received: 7 November 2012 / Revised: 5 January 2013 / Accepted: 6 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (535 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Platinum resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in ovarian cancer. We previously identified matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) as a potential therapeutic target of chemoresistant disease. A2780cis (cisplatin-resistant) and A2780 (cisplatin-sensitive) ovarian carcinoma cell lines were used. The cytotoxic effect of MMP-9/MMP-2
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Platinum resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in ovarian cancer. We previously identified matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) as a potential therapeutic target of chemoresistant disease. A2780cis (cisplatin-resistant) and A2780 (cisplatin-sensitive) ovarian carcinoma cell lines were used. The cytotoxic effect of MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor, (2R)-2-[(4-Biphenylsulfonyl) amino]-3 phenylpropionic acid (C21H19NO4S) alone or in combination with cisplatin was determined using high content screening. Protein expression was examined using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Co-incubation of cisplatin and an MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor, (2R)-2-[(4-Biphenylsulfonyl) amino]-3 phenylpropionic acid (C21H19NO4S) resulted in significantly greater cytotoxicity as compared to either treatment alone in a cisplatin resistant MMP-9 overexpressing cell line; A2780cis. In addition, pre-incubating with MMP-9i prior to cisplatin further enhances the cytotoxic effect. No significant difference was observed in MMP-9 protein in tissue but a trend towards increased MMP-9 was observed in recurrent serum. We propose that MMP-9/MMP-2i may be utilized in the treatment of recurrent/chemoresistant ovarian cancers that overexpress MMP-9 mRNA but its role in vivo remains to be evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genes and Pathways in the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle Blood microRNAs in Low or No Risk Ischemic Stroke Patients
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 2072-2084; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14012072
Received: 6 November 2012 / Revised: 11 December 2012 / Accepted: 17 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (492 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ischemic stroke is a multi-factorial disease where some patients present themselves with little or no risk factors. Blood microRNA expression profiles are becoming useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of human diseases. We therefore investigated the blood microRNA profiles in young stroke patients
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Ischemic stroke is a multi-factorial disease where some patients present themselves with little or no risk factors. Blood microRNA expression profiles are becoming useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of human diseases. We therefore investigated the blood microRNA profiles in young stroke patients who presented with minimal or absence of risk factors for stroke such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Blood microRNA profiles from these patients varied with stroke subtypes as well as different functional outcomes (based on modified Rankin Score). These microRNAs have been shown to target genes that are involved in stroke pathogenesis. The findings from our study suggest that molecular mechanisms in stroke pathogenesis involving low or no risk ischemic stroke patients could differ substantially from those with pre-existing risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs 2012)
Open AccessArticle Development of Collagen/Demineralized Bone Powder Scaffolds and Periosteum-Derived Cells for Bone Tissue Engineering Application
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 2056-2071; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14012056
Received: 24 October 2012 / Revised: 11 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 21 January 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (2113 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate physical and biological properties of collagen (COL) and demineralized bone powder (DBP) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. DBP was prepared and divided into three groups, based on various particle sizes: 75–125 µm, 125–250 µm, and
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The aim of this study was to investigate physical and biological properties of collagen (COL) and demineralized bone powder (DBP) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. DBP was prepared and divided into three groups, based on various particle sizes: 75–125 µm, 125–250 µm, and 250–500 µm. DBP was homogeneously mixed with type I collagen and three-dimensional scaffolds were constructed, applying chemical crosslinking and lyophilization. Upon culture with human periosteum-derived cells (PD cells), osteogenic differentiation of PD cells was investigated using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium assay kits. The physical properties of the COL/DBP scaffolds were obviously different from COL scaffolds, irrespective of the size of DBP. In addition, PD cells cultured with COL scaffolds showed significantly higher cell adhesion and proliferation than those with COL/DBP scaffolds. In contrast, COL/DBP scaffolds exhibited greater osteoinductive potential than COL scaffolds. The PD cells with COL/DBP scaffolds possessed higher ALP activity than those with COL scaffolds. PD cells cultured with COL/DBP scaffolds with 250–500 mm particle size yielded the maximum calcium deposition. In conclusion, PD cells cultured on the scaffolds could exhibit osteoinductive potential. The composite scaffold of COL/DBP with 250–500 mm particle size could be considered a potential bone tissue engineering implant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
Open AccessArticle Corneal Stromal Cell Growth on Gelatin/Chondroitin Sulfate Scaffolds Modified at Different NHS/EDC Molar Ratios
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 2036-2055; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14012036
Received: 5 November 2012 / Revised: 13 December 2012 / Accepted: 5 January 2013 / Published: 21 January 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (674 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A nanoscale modification strategy that can incorporate chondroitin sulfate (CS) into the cross-linked porous gelatin materials has previously been proposed to give superior performance for designed corneal keratocyte scaffolds. The purpose of this work was to further investigate the influence of carbodiimide chemistry
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A nanoscale modification strategy that can incorporate chondroitin sulfate (CS) into the cross-linked porous gelatin materials has previously been proposed to give superior performance for designed corneal keratocyte scaffolds. The purpose of this work was to further investigate the influence of carbodiimide chemistry on the characteristics and biofunctionalities of gelatin/CS scaffolds treated with varying N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)/1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) molar ratios (0-1) at a constant EDC concentration of 10 mM. Results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and dimethylmethylene blue assays consistently indicated that when the NHS to EDC molar ratio exceeds a critical level (i.e., 0.5), the efficiency of carbodiimide-mediated biomaterial modification is significantly reduced. With the optimum NHS/EDC molar ratio of 0.5, chemical treatment could achieve relatively high CS content in the gelatin scaffolds, thereby enhancing the water content, glucose permeation, and fibronectin adsorption. Live/Dead assays and interleukin-6 mRNA expression analyses demonstrated that all the test samples have good cytocompatibility without causing toxicity and inflammation. In the molar ratio range of NHS to EDC from 0 to 0.5, the cell adhesion ratio and proliferation activity on the chemically modified samples significantly increased, which is attributed to the increasing CS content. Additionally, the materials with highest CS content (0.143 ± 0.007 nmol/10 mg scaffold) showed the greatest stimulatory effect on the biosynthetic activity of cultivated keratocytes. These findings suggest that a positive correlation is noticed between the NHS to EDC molar ratio and the CS content in the biopolymer matrices, thereby greatly affecting the corneal stromal cell growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
Open AccessArticle Self-Assembly of Discrete Metal Complexes in Aqueous Solution via Block Copolypeptide Amphiphiles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 2022-2035; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14012022
Received: 11 December 2012 / Revised: 9 January 2013 / Accepted: 17 January 2013 / Published: 21 January 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2075 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The integration of discrete metal complexes has been attracting significant interest due to the potential of these materials for soft metal-metal interactions and supramolecular assembly. Additionally, block copolypeptide amphiphiles have been investigated concerning their capacity for self-assembly into structures such as nanoparticles, nanosheets
[...] Read more.
The integration of discrete metal complexes has been attracting significant interest due to the potential of these materials for soft metal-metal interactions and supramolecular assembly. Additionally, block copolypeptide amphiphiles have been investigated concerning their capacity for self-assembly into structures such as nanoparticles, nanosheets and nanofibers. In this study, we combined these two concepts by investigating the self-assembly of discrete metal complexes in aqueous solution using block copolypeptides. Normally, discrete metal complexes such as [Au(CN)2], when molecularly dispersed in water, cannot interact with one another. Our results demonstrated, however, that the addition of block copolypeptide amphiphiles such as K183L19 to [Au(CN)2] solutions induced one-dimensional integration of the discrete metal complex, resulting in photoluminescence originating from multinuclear complexes with metal-metal interactions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a fibrous nanostructure with lengths and widths of approximately 100 and 20 nm, respectively, which grew to form advanced nanoarchitectures, including those resembling the weave patterns of Waraji (traditional Japanese straw sandals). This concept of combining block copolypeptide amphiphiles with discrete coordination compounds allows the design of flexible and functional supramolecular coordination systems in water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Self-Assembly 2012)
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Open AccessArticle Catalysis of Transesterification Reactions by a Self-Assembled Nanosystem
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 2011-2021; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14012011
Received: 30 November 2012 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 21 January 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (461 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Histidine-containing peptides self-assemble on the surface of monolayer protected gold nanoparticles to form a catalytic system for transesterification reactions. Self-assembly is a prerequisite for catalysis, since the isolated peptides do not display catalytic activity by themselves. A series of catalytic peptides and substrates
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Histidine-containing peptides self-assemble on the surface of monolayer protected gold nanoparticles to form a catalytic system for transesterification reactions. Self-assembly is a prerequisite for catalysis, since the isolated peptides do not display catalytic activity by themselves. A series of catalytic peptides and substrates are studied in order to understand the structural parameters that are of relevance to the catalytic efficiency of the system. It is shown that the distance between the His-residue and the anionic tail does not affect the catalytic activity. On the other hand, the catalytic His-residue is sensitive to the chemical nature of the flanking amino acid residues. In particular, the presence of polar Ser-residues causes a significant increase in activity. Finally, kinetic studies of a series of substrates reveal that substrates with a hydrophobic component are very suitable for this catalytic system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Self-Assembly 2012)
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative and Chemical Fingerprint Analysis for the Quality Evaluation of Receptaculum Nelumbinis by RP-HPLC Coupled with Hierarchical Clustering Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 1999-2010; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14011999
Received: 28 September 2012 / Revised: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 11 January 2013 / Published: 21 January 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (467 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A simple and reliable method of high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was developed to evaluate the quality of Receptaculum Nelumbinis (dried receptacle of Nelumbo nucifera) through establishing chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneous determination of five flavonol glycosides, including hyperoside, isoquercitrin,
[...] Read more.
A simple and reliable method of high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was developed to evaluate the quality of Receptaculum Nelumbinis (dried receptacle of Nelumbo nucifera) through establishing chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneous determination of five flavonol glycosides, including hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronide, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-d-galactoside and syringetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside. In quantitative analysis, the five components showed good regression (R > 0.9998) within linear ranges, and their recoveries were in the range of 98.31%–100.32%. In the chromatographic fingerprint, twelve peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks to assess the similarities of different samples collected from different origins in China according to the State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) requirements. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was also applied to evaluate the variation of chemical components among different sources of Receptaculum Nelumbinis in China. This study indicated that the combination of quantitative and chromatographic fingerprint analysis can be readily utilized as a quality control method for Receptaculum Nelumbinis and its related traditional Chinese medicinal preparations. Full article
Open AccessReview The Twenty-Year Story of a Plant-Based Vaccine Against Hepatitis B: Stagnation or Promising Prospects?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 1978-1998; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14011978
Received: 17 December 2012 / Revised: 7 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 21 January 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (591 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hepatitis B persists as a common human disease despite effective vaccines having been employed for almost 30 years. Plants were considered as alternative sources of vaccines, to be mainly orally administered. Despite 20-year attempts, no real anti-HBV plant-based vaccine has been developed. Immunization
[...] Read more.
Hepatitis B persists as a common human disease despite effective vaccines having been employed for almost 30 years. Plants were considered as alternative sources of vaccines, to be mainly orally administered. Despite 20-year attempts, no real anti-HBV plant-based vaccine has been developed. Immunization trials, based on ingestion of raw plant tissue and conjugated with injection or exclusively oral administration of lyophilized tissue, were either impractical or insufficient due to oral tolerance acquisition. Plant-produced purified HBV antigens were highly immunogenic when injected, but their yields were initially insufficient for practical purposes. However, knowledge and technology have progressed, hence new plant-derived anti-HBV vaccines can be proposed today. All HBV antigens can be efficiently produced in stable or transient expression systems. Processing of injection vaccines has been developed and needs only to be successfully completed. Purified antigens can be used for injection in an equivalent manner to the present commercial vaccines. Although oral vaccines require improvement, plant tissue, lyophilized or extracted and converted into tablets, etc., may serve as a boosting vaccine. Preliminary data indicate also that both vaccines can be combined in an effective parenteral-oral immunization procedure. A partial substitution of injection vaccines with oral formulations still offers good prospects for economically viable and efficacious anti-HBV plant-based vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Pharmaceuticals by Molecular Farming 2012)
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Open AccessReview Vitamin D and Death by Sunshine
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 1964-1977; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms14011964
Received: 6 December 2012 / Revised: 4 January 2013 / Accepted: 10 January 2013 / Published: 18 January 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Exposure to sunlight is the major cause of skin cancer. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) from the sun causes damage to DNA by direct absorption and can cause skin cell death. UV also causes production of reactive oxygen species that may interact with DNA to
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Exposure to sunlight is the major cause of skin cancer. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) from the sun causes damage to DNA by direct absorption and can cause skin cell death. UV also causes production of reactive oxygen species that may interact with DNA to indirectly cause oxidative DNA damage. UV increases accumulation of p53 in skin cells, which upregulates repair genes but promotes death of irreparably damaged cells. A benefit of sunlight is vitamin D, which is formed following exposure of 7-dehydrocholesterol in skin cells to UV. The relatively inert vitamin D is metabolized to various biologically active compounds, including 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Therapeutic use of vitamin D compounds has proven beneficial in several cancer types, but more recently these compounds have been shown to prevent UV-induced cell death and DNA damage in human skin cells. Here, we discuss the effects of vitamin D compounds in skin cells that have been exposed to UV. Specifically, we examine the various signaling pathways involved in the vitamin D-induced protection of skin cells from UV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UV-Induced Cell Death 2012)
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