Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 1978-1998; doi:10.3390/ijms14011978
Review

The Twenty-Year Story of a Plant-Based Vaccine Against Hepatitis B: Stagnation or Promising Prospects?

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Received: 17 December 2012; in revised form: 7 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 21 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Derived Pharmaceuticals by Molecular Farming 2012)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Hepatitis B persists as a common human disease despite effective vaccines having been employed for almost 30 years. Plants were considered as alternative sources of vaccines, to be mainly orally administered. Despite 20-year attempts, no real anti-HBV plant-based vaccine has been developed. Immunization trials, based on ingestion of raw plant tissue and conjugated with injection or exclusively oral administration of lyophilized tissue, were either impractical or insufficient due to oral tolerance acquisition. Plant-produced purified HBV antigens were highly immunogenic when injected, but their yields were initially insufficient for practical purposes. However, knowledge and technology have progressed, hence new plant-derived anti-HBV vaccines can be proposed today. All HBV antigens can be efficiently produced in stable or transient expression systems. Processing of injection vaccines has been developed and needs only to be successfully completed. Purified antigens can be used for injection in an equivalent manner to the present commercial vaccines. Although oral vaccines require improvement, plant tissue, lyophilized or extracted and converted into tablets, etc., may serve as a boosting vaccine. Preliminary data indicate also that both vaccines can be combined in an effective parenteral-oral immunization procedure. A partial substitution of injection vaccines with oral formulations still offers good prospects for economically viable and efficacious anti-HBV plant-based vaccines.
Keywords: HBV antigens; hepatitis B; injection vaccines; oral vaccines; plant-based vaccines; purification; tissue processing; transient expression; transgenic plants; VLPs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pniewski, T. The Twenty-Year Story of a Plant-Based Vaccine Against Hepatitis B: Stagnation or Promising Prospects? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 1978-1998.

AMA Style

Pniewski T. The Twenty-Year Story of a Plant-Based Vaccine Against Hepatitis B: Stagnation or Promising Prospects? International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(1):1978-1998.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pniewski, Tomasz. 2013. "The Twenty-Year Story of a Plant-Based Vaccine Against Hepatitis B: Stagnation or Promising Prospects?" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 1: 1978-1998.

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