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Vitamin D and Death by Sunshine
Discipline of Physiology, Bosch Institute, School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Discipline of Anatomy and Histology, Bosch Institute, School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 December 2012; in revised form: 4 January 2013 / Accepted: 10 January 2013 / Published: 18 January 2013
Abstract: Exposure to sunlight is the major cause of skin cancer. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) from the sun causes damage to DNA by direct absorption and can cause skin cell death. UV also causes production of reactive oxygen species that may interact with DNA to indirectly cause oxidative DNA damage. UV increases accumulation of p53 in skin cells, which upregulates repair genes but promotes death of irreparably damaged cells. A benefit of sunlight is vitamin D, which is formed following exposure of 7-dehydrocholesterol in skin cells to UV. The relatively inert vitamin D is metabolized to various biologically active compounds, including 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Therapeutic use of vitamin D compounds has proven beneficial in several cancer types, but more recently these compounds have been shown to prevent UV-induced cell death and DNA damage in human skin cells. Here, we discuss the effects of vitamin D compounds in skin cells that have been exposed to UV. Specifically, we examine the various signaling pathways involved in the vitamin D-induced protection of skin cells from UV.
Keywords: vitamin D; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; ultraviolet radiation; sunburn cells; cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers; p53; nitric oxide; MAPK; AKT
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Dixon, K.M.; Tongkao-On, W.; Sequeira, V.B.; Carter, S.E.; Song, E.J.; Rybchyn, M.S.; Gordon-Thomson, C.; Mason, R.S. Vitamin D and Death by Sunshine. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 1964-1977.
Dixon KM, Tongkao-On W, Sequeira VB, Carter SE, Song EJ, Rybchyn MS, Gordon-Thomson C, Mason RS. Vitamin D and Death by Sunshine. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(1):1964-1977.
Dixon, Katie M.; Tongkao-On, Wannit; Sequeira, Vanessa B.; Carter, Sally E.; Song, Eric J.; Rybchyn, Mark S.; Gordon-Thomson, Clare; Mason, Rebecca S. 2013. "Vitamin D and Death by Sunshine." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 1: 1964-1977.