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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 12 (December 2012), Pages 15496-17295

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Open AccessCorrection Zhou, T.B., et al., Correction: All-Trans Retinoic Acid Treatment Is Associated with Prohibitin Expression in Renal Interstitial Fibrosis Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 2769-2782.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17295; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217295
Received: 24 September 2012 / Revised: 8 October 2012 / Accepted: 24 October 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
PDF Full-text (107 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The authors wish to change Figure 2 of the paper published in IJMS [1]. The positions of H1 and H2 in the previous article were reversed. These errors have been amended in an amended version of the manuscript, which is available
[...] Read more.
The authors wish to change Figure 2 of the paper published in IJMS [1]. The positions of H1 and H2 in the previous article were reversed. These errors have been amended in an amended version of the manuscript, which is available from the International Journal of Molecular Sciences website. The authors and publisher apologize for the inconvenience. [...] Full article
Open AccessCorrection Lech, M., et al., Quantitative Expression of C-Type Lectin Receptors in Humans and Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 10113-10131.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17294; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217294
Received: 15 October 2012 / Revised: 18 October 2012 / Accepted: 18 October 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
PDF Full-text (115 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The authors wish to add this correction on their paper published in IJMS [1]. Galectin-1 was misclassified as a C-type lectin. Galectin-1 belongs to the family of the S-type lectins, i.e., the galectins. These errors have been amended in an amended version
[...] Read more.
The authors wish to add this correction on their paper published in IJMS [1]. Galectin-1 was misclassified as a C-type lectin. Galectin-1 belongs to the family of the S-type lectins, i.e., the galectins. These errors have been amended in an amended version of the manuscript, which is available from the International Journal of Molecular Sciences website. The authors and publisher apologize for the inconvenience. [...] Full article
Open AccessCorrection Kasprzak, M.M., et al., Correction: Effect of Enzymatic Treatment of Different Starch Sources on the in Vitro Rate and Extent of Starch Digestion. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 929-942.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17292-17293; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217292
Received: 28 November 2012 / Revised: 6 December 2012 / Accepted: 17 December 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (123 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The authors wish to change the description of preparation of samples at Experimental Section on their paper published in IJMS [1]. [...] Full article
Open AccessCorrection Zarogouldis, P., et al., Vectors for Inhaled Gene Therapy in Lung Cancer. Application for Nano Oncology and Safety of Bio Nanotechnology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 10828-10862
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17290-17291; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217290
Received: 28 October 2012 / Revised: 30 October 2012 / Accepted: 30 October 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (129 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The authors wish to add this correction on their paper published in IJMS [1]. The first author’s name is misspelled and the correct name is Paul Zarogoulidis. In addition, the 6th author’s name is incorrect and should be corrected to Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt. These
[...] Read more.
The authors wish to add this correction on their paper published in IJMS [1]. The first author’s name is misspelled and the correct name is Paul Zarogoulidis. In addition, the 6th author’s name is incorrect and should be corrected to Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt. These errors have been amended in an amended version of the manuscript, which is available from the International Journal of Molecular Sciences website. The authors and publisher apologize for the inconvenience. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Optimization of Synthesis, Characterization and Cytotoxic Activity of Seleno-Capparis spionosa L. Polysaccharide
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17275-17289; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217275
Received: 21 August 2012 / Revised: 17 November 2012 / Accepted: 4 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, an experiment was designed to optimize the synthesis of seleno-Capparis spionosa L. polysaccharide (Se-CSPS) by response surface methodology. Three independent variables (reaction time, reaction temperature and ratio of Na2SeO3 to CSPS) were tested. Furthermore, the thermal
[...] Read more.
In this study, an experiment was designed to optimize the synthesis of seleno-Capparis spionosa L. polysaccharide (Se-CSPS) by response surface methodology. Three independent variables (reaction time, reaction temperature and ratio of Na2SeO3 to CSPS) were tested. Furthermore, the thermal stability, particle size, shape and cytotoxic activity of Se-CSPS in vitro were investigated. The optimum reaction conditions were obtained shown as follows: reaction time 7.5 h, reaction temperature 71 °C, and ratio of Na2SeO3 to CSPS 0.9 g/g. Under these conditions, the Se content in Se-CSPS reached 5.547 mg/g, which was close to the predicted value (5.518 mg/g) by the model. The thermal stability, particle size and shape of Se-CSPS were significantly different from those of CSPS. Additionally, a MTT assay indicated that the Se-CSPS could inhibit the proliferation of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Prodrugs of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), More Than Meets the Eye: A Critical Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17244-17274; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217244
Received: 13 July 2012 / Revised: 29 November 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (525 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The design and the synthesis of prodrugs for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been given much attention by medicinal chemists, especially in the last decade. As a therapeutic group, NSAIDs are among the most widely used prescribed and over the counter (OTC) medications.
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The design and the synthesis of prodrugs for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been given much attention by medicinal chemists, especially in the last decade. As a therapeutic group, NSAIDs are among the most widely used prescribed and over the counter (OTC) medications. The rich literature about potential NSAID prodrugs clearly shows a shift from alkyl, aryalkyl or aryl esters with the sole role of masking the carboxylic acid group, to more elaborate conjugates that contain carefully chosen groups to serve specific purposes, such as enhancement of water solubility and dissolution, nitric oxide release, hydrogen sulfide release, antioxidant activity, anticholinergic and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory (AChEI) activity and site-specific targeting and delivery. This review will focus on NSAID prodrugs that have been designed or were, later, found to possess intrinsic pharmacological activity as an intact chemical entity. Such intrinsic activity might augment the anti-inflammatory activity of the NSAID, reduce its side effects or transform the potential therapeutic use from classical anti-inflammatory action to something else. Reports discussed in this review will be those of NO-NSAIDs, anticholinergic and AChEI-NSAIDs, Phospho-NSAIDs and some miscellaneous agents. In most cases, this review will cover literature dealing with these NSAID prodrugs from the year 2006 and later. Older literature will be used when necessary, e.g., to explain the chemical and biological mechanisms of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Subproteome in the Livers of Type 2 Diabetic Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17230-17243; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217230
Received: 27 September 2012 / Revised: 30 November 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (794 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease that results from insulin resistance in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue and relative insulin deficiency. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cellular response to insulin. Recently, ER
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Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease that results from insulin resistance in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue and relative insulin deficiency. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cellular response to insulin. Recently, ER stress has been known to reduce the insulin sensitivity of the liver and lead to type 2 diabetes. However, detailed mechanisms of ER stress response that leads to type 2 diabetes remains unknown. To obtain a global view of ER function in type 2 diabetic liver and identify proteins that may be responsible for hepatic ER stress and insulin resistance, we performed proteomics analysis of mouse liver ER using nano UPLC-MSE. A total of 1584 proteins were identified in control C57 and type 2 diabetic db/db mice livers. Comparison of the rER and sER proteomes from normal mice showed that proteins involved in protein synthesis and metabolic process were enriched in the rER, while those associated with transport and cellular homeostasis were localized to the sER. In addition, proteins involved in protein folding and ER stress were found only in the rER. In the livers of db/db mice, however, the functions of the rER and sER were severely disrupted, including the capacity to resolve ER stress. These results provide new insight into the research on hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and are suggestive of the potential use of the differentially expressed hepatic ER proteins as biomarkers for hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessReview X-Ray Repair Cross Complementing Protein 1 in Base Excision Repair
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17210-17229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217210
Received: 9 November 2012 / Revised: 6 December 2012 / Accepted: 7 December 2012 / Published: 17 December 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (520 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
X-ray Repair Cross Complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) acts as a scaffolding protein in the converging base excision repair (BER) and single strand break repair (SSBR) pathways. XRCC1 also interacts with itself and rapidly accumulates at sites of DNA damage. XRCC1 can thus mediate
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X-ray Repair Cross Complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) acts as a scaffolding protein in the converging base excision repair (BER) and single strand break repair (SSBR) pathways. XRCC1 also interacts with itself and rapidly accumulates at sites of DNA damage. XRCC1 can thus mediate the assembly of large multiprotein DNA repair complexes as well as facilitate the recruitment of DNA repair proteins to sites of DNA damage. Moreover, XRCC1 is present in constitutive DNA repair complexes, some of which associate with the replication machinery. Because of the critical role of XRCC1 in DNA repair, its common variants Arg194Trp, Arg280His and Arg399Gln have been extensively studied. However, the prevalence of these variants varies strongly in different populations, and their functional influence on DNA repair and disease remains elusive. Here we present the current knowledge about the role of XRCC1 and its variants in BER and human disease/cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Damage and Repair in Degenerative Diseases)
Open AccessArticle Virtual Screening of Specific Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) Inhibitors from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Molecular Database
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17185-17209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217185
Received: 10 October 2012 / Revised: 21 November 2012 / Accepted: 11 December 2012 / Published: 14 December 2012
PDF Full-text (675 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is an attractive drug target for cancer therapy and research on IGF1R inhibitors has had success in clinical trials. A particular challenge in the development of specific IGF1R inhibitors is interference from insulin receptor (IR), which has
[...] Read more.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is an attractive drug target for cancer therapy and research on IGF1R inhibitors has had success in clinical trials. A particular challenge in the development of specific IGF1R inhibitors is interference from insulin receptor (IR), which has a nearly identical sequence. A few potent inhibitors that are selective for IGF1R have been discovered experimentally with the aid of computational methods. However, studies on the rapid identification of IGF1R-selective inhibitors using virtual screening and confidence-level inspections of ligands that show different interactions with IGF1R and IR in docking analysis are rare. In this study, we established virtual screening and binding-mode prediction workflows based on benchmark results of IGF1R and several kinase receptors with IGF1R-like structures. We used comprehensive analysis of the known complexes of IGF1R and IR with their binding ligands to screen specific IGF1R inhibitors. Using these workflows, 17 of 139,735 compounds in the NCI (National Cancer Institute) database were identified as potential specific inhibitors of IGF1R. Calculations of the potential of mean force (PMF) with GROMACS were further conducted for three of the identified compounds to assess their binding affinity differences towards IGF1R and IR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessReview Nitric Oxide in Skeletal Muscle: Role on Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Function
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17160-17184; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217160
Received: 1 November 2012 / Revised: 4 December 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 14 December 2012
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (782 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in several cellular processes as a signaling molecule and also as a source of reactive nitrogen species (RNS). NO is produced by three isoenzymes called nitric oxide synthases (NOS), all present in skeletal muscle. While neuronal NOS
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Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in several cellular processes as a signaling molecule and also as a source of reactive nitrogen species (RNS). NO is produced by three isoenzymes called nitric oxide synthases (NOS), all present in skeletal muscle. While neuronal NOS (nNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) are isoforms constitutively expressed, inducible NOS (iNOS) is mainly expressed during inflammatory responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that NO is also involved in the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway, having PGC-1α as the main signaling molecule. Increased NO synthesis has been demonstrated in the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle fiber and NO can also reversibly inhibit cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV of the respiratory chain). Investigation on cultured skeletal myotubes treated with NO donors, NO precursors or NOS inhibitors have also showed a bimodal effect of NO that depends on the concentration used. The present review will discuss the new insights on NO roles on mitochondrial biogenesis and function in skeletal muscle. We will also focus on potential therapeutic strategies based on NO precursors or analogs to treat patients with myopathies and mitochondrial deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle Aptamer-Based Molecular Recognition of Lysergamine, Metergoline and Small Ergot Alkaloids
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17138-17159; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217138
Received: 18 September 2012 / Revised: 26 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 14 December 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1122 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins produced by fungi of the genus Claviceps, which infect cereal crops and grasses. The uptake of ergot alkaloid contaminated cereal products can be lethal to humans and animals. For food safety assessment, analytical techniques are currently used to
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Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins produced by fungi of the genus Claviceps, which infect cereal crops and grasses. The uptake of ergot alkaloid contaminated cereal products can be lethal to humans and animals. For food safety assessment, analytical techniques are currently used to determine the presence of ergot alkaloids in food and feed samples. However, the number of samples which can be analyzed is limited, due to the cost of the equipment and the need for skilled personnel. In order to compensate for the lack of rapid tests for the detection of ergot alkaloids, the aim of this study was to develop a specific recognition element for ergot alkaloids, which could be further applied to produce a colorimetric reaction in the presence of these toxins. As recognition elements, single-stranded DNA ligands were selected by using an iterative selection procedure named SELEX, i.e., Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment. After several selection cycles, the resulting aptamers were cloned and sequenced. A surface plasmon resonance analysis enabled determination of the dissociation constants of the complexes of aptamers and lysergamine. Dissociation constants in the nanomolar range were obtained with three selected aptamers. One of the selected aptamers, having a dissociation constant of 44 nM, was linked to gold nanoparticles and it was possible to produce a colorimetric reaction in the presence of lysergamine. This system could also be applied to small ergot alkaloids in an ergot contaminated flour sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Recognition)
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Open AccessReview Natural Biomolecules and Protein Aggregation: Emerging Strategies against Amyloidogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17121-17137; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217121
Received: 29 November 2012 / Revised: 12 December 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 14 December 2012
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biomolecular self-assembly is a fundamental process in all organisms. As primary components of the life molecular machinery, proteins have a vast array of resources available to them for self-assembly in a functional structure. Protein self-assembly, however, can also occur in an aberrant way,
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Biomolecular self-assembly is a fundamental process in all organisms. As primary components of the life molecular machinery, proteins have a vast array of resources available to them for self-assembly in a functional structure. Protein self-assembly, however, can also occur in an aberrant way, giving rise to non-native aggregated structures responsible for severe, progressive human diseases that have a serious social impact. Different neurodegenerative disorders, like Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s, and spongiform encephalopathy diseases, have in common the presence of insoluble protein aggregates, generally termed “amyloid,” that share several physicochemical features: a fibrillar morphology, a predominantly beta-sheet secondary structure, birefringence upon staining with the dye Congo red, insolubility in common solvents and detergents, and protease resistance. Conformational constrains, hydrophobic and stacking interactions can play a key role in the fibrillogenesis process and protein–protein and peptide–peptide interactions—resulting in self-assembly phenomena of peptides yielding fibrils—that can be modulated and influenced by natural biomolecules. Small organic molecules, which possess both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties able to bind to peptide/protein molecules through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic and aromatic interactions, are potential candidates against amyloidogenesis. In this review some significant case examples will be critically discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Self-Assembly 2012)
Open AccessArticle High Density Lipoprotein Protects Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis via Activation of the PI3K/Akt Pathway and Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17104-17120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217104
Received: 26 September 2012 / Revised: 11 November 2012 / Accepted: 4 December 2012 / Published: 13 December 2012
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (1917 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The therapeutic effect of transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in myocardial infarction (MI) appears to be limited by poor cell viability in the injured tissue, which is a consequence of oxidative stress and pro-apoptotic factors. High density lipoprotein (HDL) reverses cholesterol transport
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The therapeutic effect of transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in myocardial infarction (MI) appears to be limited by poor cell viability in the injured tissue, which is a consequence of oxidative stress and pro-apoptotic factors. High density lipoprotein (HDL) reverses cholesterol transport and has anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties. We, therefore, investigated whether HDL could protect MSCs from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. MSCs derived from the bone marrow of rats were pre-incubated with or without HDL, and then were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in vitro, or were transplanted into experimentally infarcted hearts of rats in vivo. Pre-incubation of MSCs with HDL increased cell viability, reduced apoptotic indices and resulted in parallel decreases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in comparison with control MSCs. Each of the beneficial effects of HDL on MSCs was attenuated by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway. Preconditioning with HDL resulted in higher MSC survival rates, improved cardiac remodeling and better myocardial function than in the MSC control group. Collectively, these results suggest that HDL may protect against H2O2-induced apoptosis in MSCs through activation of a PI3K/Akt pathway, and by suppressing the production of ROS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessReview Plant Glandular Trichomes as Targets for Breeding or Engineering of Resistance to Herbivores
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17077-17103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217077
Received: 6 November 2012 / Revised: 28 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 12 December 2012
Cited by 95 | PDF Full-text (1172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant’s secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products
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Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant’s secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products that can be used by the pharmaceutical industry, although many of these substances have evolved to provide the plant with protection against herbivores and pathogens. The storage compartment of glandular trichomes usually is located on the tip of the hair and is part of the glandular cell, or cells, which are metabolically active. Trichomes and their exudates can be harvested relatively easily, and this has permitted a detailed study of their metabolites, as well as the genes and proteins responsible for them. This knowledge now assists classical breeding programs, as well as targeted genetic engineering, aimed to optimize trichome density and physiology to facilitate customization of essential oil production or to tune biocide activity to enhance crop protection. We will provide an overview of the metabolic diversity found within plant glandular trichomes, with the emphasis on those of the Solanaceae, and of the tools available to manipulate their activities for enhancing the plant’s resistance to pests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Biocides)
Open AccessArticle Plant Regeneration and Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Embryos Derived through Interspecific Hybridization among Different Carica Species
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(12), 17065-17076; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms131217065
Received: 5 September 2012 / Revised: 15 November 2012 / Accepted: 4 December 2012 / Published: 12 December 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1625 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species were studied for the development of a papaya ringspot virus-resistant variety. The maximum fruit sets were recorded from the cross of the native variety C. papaya cv. Shahi with the wild
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Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species were studied for the development of a papaya ringspot virus-resistant variety. The maximum fruit sets were recorded from the cross of the native variety C. papaya cv. Shahi with the wild species C. cauliflora. The highest hybrid embryos were recorded at 90 days after pollination and the embryos were aborted at 150 days after pollination. The immature hybrid embryos were used for plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora showed the highest percentage of germination, as well as plant regeneration on growth regulators free culture medium after 7 days pre-incubation on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L BAP, 0.5 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora produced maximum callus, as well as somatic embryos when cultured on half-strength MS medium containing 5 mg/L 2,4-D, 100 mg/L glutamine, 100 mg/L casein hydrolysate and 60 g/L sucrose. The somatic embryos were transferred into half-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose for maturation. The highest number of regenerated plants per hybrid embryo (10.33) was recorded from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora. Isoenzyme and dendrogram cluster analysis using UPGMA of the regenerated F1 plantlets confirmed the presence of the hybrid plantlets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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