Next Article in Journal
Previous Article in Journal
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 1932-1939; doi:10.3390/ijms14011932
Article

Neuroprotective Effects of Ultra-Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin on Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats: Involvement of Apoptosis, Inflammatory Reaction and Energy Metabolism

1
, 1
, 2,*  and 3
Received: 16 October 2012; in revised form: 21 December 2012 / Accepted: 26 December 2012 / Published: 17 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [262 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figure
Abstract: Previous experiments showed that ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin (ULMWH) reduced the infarct and neurologic deficit in rats followed by transient cerebral ischemia, but the mechanisms of its neuroprotective effect are unclear. This study reported the effect of ULMWH on energy metabolism, inflammatory reaction and neuronal apoptosis. Male Wistar rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 24 h. ULMWH (0.5, 1 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered after the MCAO and reperfusion. 24 h after the reperfusion, Spectrophotometric assay was used to determine the activity of ATPase and the content of lactic acid in the brain. The ICAM-1 and Caspase-3 genes were investigated by RT-PCR. Furthermore, the apoptotic percentage of cells in hippocampus was quantified by flow cytometry. Compared with the model group, ULMWH significantly decreased lactic acid content and increased ATPase activity in ischemic brain. At the same time, ULMWH inhibited the neural apoptosis and decreased the expressions of ICAM-1 and Caspase-3 mRNA in hippocampus. These findings suggest that ULMWH exhibits a neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, partly through improving energy metabolism, inhibiting apoptosis and attenuating inflammatory reaction.
Keywords: ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin (ULMWH); energy metabolism; apoptosis; inflammatory reaction; middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin (ULMWH); energy metabolism; apoptosis; inflammatory reaction; middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Z.-G.; Sun, X.; Zhang, Q.-Z.; Yang, H. Neuroprotective Effects of Ultra-Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin on Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats: Involvement of Apoptosis, Inflammatory Reaction and Energy Metabolism. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 1932-1939.

AMA Style

Zhang Z-G, Sun X, Zhang Q-Z, Yang H. Neuroprotective Effects of Ultra-Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin on Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats: Involvement of Apoptosis, Inflammatory Reaction and Energy Metabolism. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(1):1932-1939.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Qing-Zhu; Yang, Hua. 2013. "Neuroprotective Effects of Ultra-Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin on Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats: Involvement of Apoptosis, Inflammatory Reaction and Energy Metabolism." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 1: 1932-1939.



Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert